Time is God's way of keeping everything from
happening at once
A personal view on The Nature and Cause of Time
Ron Larter. Cert Math (Open)
Main theme: The cause of time and its physical
nature derived from the transfer of energy between masses.
Contents: Mass and Time Basis, Change, Energy
and Force, Principle of Action,, Particles of Time, Time Waves
Time has become one of the greatest mysteries of science and
philosophy; which has been debated, investigated and written about
for centuries. The answer to time’s dilemma always appears to escape
us, not being able to come to any agreeable conclusion regarding its
true nature. Have we been looking at time from the wrong angle?
Possibly the answer lies at the atomic level, not with the concept
of space-time. Energy is the source of all chemical, biological and
physical events in one form or another, either directly or
indirectly. This paper therefore puts forward assumptions that might
call for a re-evaluation about the nature of time. Apart from seeing
time as a mathematical concept having an inseparable connection with
space, its physical concept can be shown to have a direct
relationship with matter. It can be shown that energy is responsible
for the continuous creation and decay of time, which gives rise to
the product we call time flow. Logic, although not evidence in
itself, indicates this is so. The purpose of this paper is to
determine whether or not time does indeed have a physical existence,
and the two central questions of my investigation has been: 'What is
time', and 'What causes time'? Proof of time’s existence will be a
tough ordeal, but this paper considers three basic assumptions about
time, which leads to definable principles that can expose the nature
and cause of time. If the assumptions and principles presented here
can be accepted as valid, then perhaps we can at last draw an
agreeable conclusion about the nature of time, showing that time
does indeed exist and have physical properties.
In the beginning I had no preconceived ideas about time, except
that it passes by every second of the day, and by that process we
all grow old. My mind was open. I didn't consider time to be
illusory, nor did I consider time to have physical properties. There
was however, one central question brooding in my mind - what is
I soon realised there was no possible way of answering that
question without first knowing what causes time. Investigating the
cause of time therefore, became my first objective, and this paper
is the result of that investigation.
Why have we failed to develop a good hypothesis or theory that
haven’t as yet received a unanimous vote of acceptance?
Perhaps its because time has such a wide application in all
fields of investigation, and as a result, has been interpreted in
many ways according to the dictates of a particular field of study,
leading to differing opinions of thought. There is obvious evidence
of this in the field of philosophy and physics where each has
differing schools of thought regarding time.
So, where do we begin? Well, for the purpose of this hypothesis
we need to break away from the current concept of space and time
being inseparably connected. I can agree that space and time have a
mathematical relationship, and by virtue of this relationship can be
considered inseparable in geometrical terms, but not in physical
In physical terms, the strongest evidence of time is related to
events that pass by every second of every day, so we need to assume
that time is directly related to matter on the basis that it’s
matter which advances through time.
Based on the assumption that time is related to matter, we need
to investigate what that relationship is and how they relate, and
whether or not it leads us to the concept of time having physical
properties that can account for its behaviour? If we find it does,
then we should be able to determine whether or not time exist, have
a flow quality; whether or not the past and future exists and how it
relates to the present and the moment we call ‘now’, and also allow
us to define what time itself is.
To begin the investigation, let’s see what general assumptions we
can make about the nature of time based on current understanding.
Some of the questions may sound philosophical but they are deeply
relevant to scientific enquiry.
Three General Assumptions: .
There appears to be two basic schools of thought with respect to
- Time has no physical existence; it’s merely an illusion of the
mind, therefore does not flow in the external world; so it can be
assumed there is no future or past, and only the present is real.
- Time has real physical existence; so it can be assumed time
flows, and there is a past, a present and a future.
How can we resolve this apparently opposing problem of time? In
fact, both statements are true. School (a), the idea of time being
an illusion, is a conscious response or an experience derived from
physical time. The two schools of thought can be unified into one
working component. However, the prime essence of this paper isn't to
compare differing views of two schools, but to determine whether or
not time has physical properties.
So let's begin with one of the most fundamental features of time
that most can agree with, which is change. Everything in our
universe changes, some slowly, some very quickly, some changes are
We have changes in size, mass, position, chemical make-up,
physical appearances, etc. Without change, all things in nature
would be static.
Change is a fundamental feature of nature, therefore must be
a fundamental feature of passing time. Without change there can be
no displacement of mass and energy and no advancement or
progression of matter and events.
Adding to this, Newton proposed that a body at rest or in motion,
could not change unless a force acts on that body. This in effect is
saying that ‘nothing changes unless there is something that causes a
change’. The cause of any change will of necessity have to be a
force or source of energy, which as we shall see is a key component
to understanding time within this investigation.
Change is the result of a cause derived from a source of
energy or an applied force, which has an influence on the course
of events and the passage of time. Even thought processes, which
can have a direct influence on events and people, is energy
If energy is the cause of change, and change is a feature of
time, then we need to assume there is a relationship between time
and cause. Also, if cause can be related to a source of energy, and
energy has it's origin at the atomic level, not only do we need to
investigate the relationship between time and cause, we will also
need to investigate energy and its link with atomic structure with
regards to time and its cause.
The passing of time appears to have energy as its source of
origin derived from atomic activity, thereby creating 'cause'
which creates the 'effect' of continuous change of matter.
Therefore, it can be assumed there is a link between the atomic
structure of matter and time.
From these three assumptions; ‘change’, ‘cause of change through
energy or applied forces’ and its ‘relationship with the atomic
structure of matter’, therefore is the basis of this investigation
and for the formulation of a testable hypothesis or theory on the
nature and cause of time.
A Tentative Hypothesis
In the General Concept of Time it describes how time and energy
appears to be directly related, and even suggested they may two
aspects of the same thing but defined differently according to the
nature of their behaviour.
For example, when speaking of time in a general every day sense,
we are usually referring to the passing of events that can be, and
are, measured in units of seconds, hours, days, years etc. Time is
also defined as distance divided by speed. But when speaking of
energy however, we are usually referring to the work it does.
Although time and energy are described differently they can in
fact be considered unified in their influence and effect on our
existence in local space. If according to the general concept, time
and energy are described as having a dual existence, then it should
be possible to test that concept. It should be possible to create
experiments that can show their relationship.
If time is directly related with energy, then we should be able
to show that different measures of energy acting on matter will
affect its time velocity, where time velocity is the 'rate of
I need to explain here that 'time velocity', being the 'rate of
change', relates to how quickly matter changes from one state,
condition or form to another in its various processes, be it
physical or chemical. Everything changes in one way of another, some
very slowly some very quickly, and it's that speed of change I refer
to as being the time velocity. Water for example can change from one
state to another, from a gas to a liquid to a solid and vise versa
by the application or reduction of heat. The greater the source of
heat the faster the process and the lower the heat source the slower
the process. Plants too can grow at different rates at different
measures of temperature.
What about time flow? How different is it from time velocity? If
the time effect is related to change, then time flow needs to be
identified with the movement of change from one state, condition or
form to another, while time velocity needs to be identified as the
rate or speed of that movement of change.
Time can be identified with motion in two ways; the motion of
passing time as found in clocks giving visual changes in numerical
units as suggested by Aristotle, and by motion derived from a
sequence of change as observed in the emergent of passing of events.
Both the measure of time and the sequence of physical events
encompasses the idea of change, the change of a numerical value when
counting time and the physical change of matter, both of which are
Now, if time encompasses the idea of change then it would be
logical to assume that the velocity of time flow ought to have a
relationship with the rate of change. If the rate of change (time
flow) increases then surely the time velocity increases and vise
With that in mind, we know the rate of change of matter can be
influenced by various forms of energy. Various levels of heat for
example can affect atomic and molecular behaviour causing matter to
accelerate its processes or slow down when the temperature drops.
As already mentioned, by using the ice model we can perform a
thought experiment where an increase of heat can cause the ice cube
to melt faster, thereby giving its solid form a shorter life-span.
But if it was kept in an environment away from a heat source, such
as a refrigerator, the ice cube could be visualised as exhibiting no
change, therefore no time flow, and having no time flow would mean
it has a time velocity of zero. the ice cube would last
The General Concept:
Nucleons – the 'mass' of substance
Time, we are told, is inseparably connected with space, giving
what has been coined the ‘space-time continuum’. Although space-time
might be an excellent model to use mathematically, it has however
given rise to all kinds of theories and speculations about time and
time travel, which in my opinion are way out of tune with reality
and will never lead us to answer the question of time itself.
The most logical line of research into the nature of time is to
investigate its connection with matter, which after all, is the
stuff that moves and ages in time. It seems, after a long period of
investigation, that the answer to time can indeed be found within
the structure of matter. Time is not a mysterious entity that many
seem to have us believe. Time can be illustrated as being a natural
occurrence of nature, a by-product of physical and chemical
To repeat, time is assumed to be inseparably connected with
matter, the stuff that makes up the material of our universe. Matter
is the essence of our existence that moves and ages in time, from
freshness to decay, from youth to old age, from simple atomic
elements to highly structured forms that can breathe, think and
reproduce itself. It’s the material that makes up our planet, a
world that’s in a state of constant change from one day to the next.
It also makes up the countless billions of stars of the cosmos as
well as our own sun that provides our need for light, warmth and
Matter is made of substances or a mixture of substances that have
atomic elements as their base structures, and these atomic elements
are the building blocks of matter, from the smallest microscopic
object to the largest cosmological object. Within the structure of
these building blocks we find packets of interacting fundamental
particles - the proton, the neutron and the electron, and each one
of these particles have mass, which is the property of heaviness,
and the greatest portion of this mass is located at the nucleus of
atoms by way of protons and neutrons. The mass of these two
particles is found to be much greater than their surrounding
neighbours, the electrons. From this it was concluded that the
nucleus contains practically all the mass of an atom, while the mass
contributed by an electron is almost negligible. Therefore, I felt
impressed to consider the first fundamental principle of matter and
its relationship with time.
Principle 1: The presence of mass at the centre of an
atom is to give matter a Mass Basis. Without it, nature could not
create the variety of atomic elements we have in existence.
Electrons – the platform of time
A nucleus of centralised mass by itself however, is of no use as
far as creating matter is concerned; it requires something else to
allow it to function as an atomic element. That something else is
the electron; which, as previously mentioned contributes almost
nothing towards the mass of an element, yet its presence appears to
make a vital contribution to matter. It must therefore be quite an
important particle with a special function or principle applied to
it. Let’s see what it might be.
Within the structure of an atom we find negatively charged
electrons distributed around its nucleus in various energy levels,
or shells, that act as stabilisers for the positively charged
protons of the nucleus. Also, the electrons of the two outer most
shells have been found to act as platforms for the energy of
exchange through the emission and absorption of quanta particles.
During the exchange of energy an electron either jumps to a
higher energy level when absorbing energy or to a lower level when
emitting energy. It’s this action alone that drives chemical and
bio-chemical processes, and even physical events through time by one
of time’s fundamental characteristics, the process of change. The
idea of time operating by the process of change is not new and has
been a common thought since the days of antiquity.
No matter what form of change is taking place, the process of
change is always linked with some form of force or energy transfer.
Without this fundamental process of nature time could not manifest
itself. It’s through change that we see evidence of growth,
progression, motion, ageing and decay; and it’s this change from one
condition to another that creates the experience of our passage
The presence of electrons therefore is vital in the creation of
‘matter with a time function’, with moments of time being created
whenever an electron emits quanta energy; and where moments of time
decay by the absorption of quanta energy. Without it, matter could
not progress from one state or condition to another, therefore the
flow or passage of time would cease. The electron therefore appears
to be the platform or stage where time is created through the
process of atomic change, and as long as atomic processes are going
on time will always manifest itself. Therefore, we can assume time
has a direct relationship with the electrons of atomic elements.
Principle 2: The presence of electrons around a
nucleus creates atomic elements with a time basis, which endows
matter the ability to change and progress with a time factor.
The Event Horizon
The transfer of energy is the only means by which chemical change
can occur when an electron trades energy for an atomic event. The
outer energy level or atomic boundary is the area of action, which I
view as being the point where time and events interact that can be
defined as being the ‘atomic event horizon’. At the atomic event
horizon atomic, (AEH), atomic events result in the making and
breaking of chemical elements, thus changing the state or
composition of matter.
A solitary atomic event contributes nothing but one discrete
moment or single step in time, but when there are billions upon
billions of atomic events, the result is an explosion of continuous
change we observe and experience as being the passing of time.
Principle 2:1 The Event Horizon of Atomic Elements.
The outer electrons of an atomic element is the
boundary where the making and breaking of chemical elements take
place. It's the event horizon of atomic events, the stage where a
discrete moment or particle of time is created or decays by virtue
of a chemical change.
Energy - the principle of action.
So far we have two key principles, one that sets up the mass
basis of matter and the other setting up the time basis. However,
matter cannot function with these two principles alone; something
else is required to get things moving, and that something else is a
principle of action, commonly defined as work.
Work is the operative influence that causes something to change,
and change, as we have already assumed, is a fundamental feature of
passing time. Without work, (which is the application of energy or
force), nature would remain static and unchanging, therefore it’s
logical to assume time will cease to exist. It seems therefore, time
is dependent on the transfer of energy from one body or form to
another, which strongly suggests that energy is the root cause of
time. In fact, I am making an assumption that time and energy are
one and the same.
Consider for example what the physicist and mathematician, James
A Coleman, said when he explained that mass has an affect on time,
which fits in nicely with my assumption . He suggested that the
emission of one photon could be viewed as one tick of time
corresponding to one vibration, and the vibrations of a nucleus
could be considered as acting like the ticking of a clock. When the
frequency of vibration decrease, the nucleus clock is slowing down,
therefore a decreased frequency could be interpreted as a slowing
down of time itself.
Physicist, Paul Davies, declared that in quantum physics, energy
always go hand in hand with time. The amount of energy determines
the rate at which time passes - the beat of the quantum clock, if
you like. No energy means the quantum clock ceases to tick..
If energy is largely derived from photons that appear to act like
the ticking of time, and with energy being the principle cause of
change, we therefore have a direct relationship between time and
energy. Although Coleman nor Davies never stated it directly, it
would seem as though time and energy are one and the same. This
implies time has a physical existence, an existence that relies
totally on the exchange of energy from one body to another, which
strongly suggests that energy is the root of time flow.
Principle 3: The passage of time is energy dependent
where energy is the source of work that causes change, therefore
energy can be defined as being the root of time.
Work and Energy.
We can take principle 3 further by expanding the idea of time’s
dependency on work and energy. One of the fundamental principles of
physics tells us that energy has the capacity to do work; it can
activate chemical, biological and physical events. It can make rain,
change the weather, change our environment, boil an egg, create new
stars and planets, and even create life and activate thought
These acts of change are the results of energy at work, causing
matter to flow on its natural course through space and time.
By setting up a simple model using ice we can visualise the
progression of time flow motivated by the application of a source of
energy, which in this particular model is heat.
Fig 1 - Energy at Work
(Time Flow Model)
ENERGY -----------------> WORK -------------->
HEAT --------> WATER MOLECULES EXCITED
direction of time flow
When a source of heat is applied it agitates the frozen water
molecules to the point where they begin to vibrate to such a degree
that the electrical bonding between them loses its grip, until
eventually the molecules begin to break away, rolling over each
other as a flowing liquid. This model shows at a simple level, the
progression of matter through time by the process of change brought
about by work that was put into effect by a flow of energy.
Principle 3:1 - Work and Moments.
The passage of time is directly linked with change, and the act of
a change is the result of energy at work; energy that comes from
the motion of a wave possessing a succession of quanta that can be
defined as moments of energy at points described as wave crests.
Moments of Energy
An addition to principle 3:1 can be made that expands on the idea
of moments of energy, giving a deeper insight into the properties of
All energies possessing a wave structure such as those found in
radiant energy, acoustic waves and even water ripples have wave
crests corresponding to moments, or points of action; where each
moment of energy could be related to a single instant of time.
Returning to principle 3, it states a photon could be viewed as
being one tick or quanta second, but it may be more appropriate to
refer to it as a moment of time, and would suggest that the measure
of a moment would be the same for all moments, but the frequency of
moments can vary according to the frequency or rate of atomic
vibrations. Duration however, is derived from the space found
between each wave crest or moment, which can be short or long,
depending on the frequency of the wave in question. The higher the
frequency the shorter the measurable duration between moments, and
if it were possible to reach a frequency that equals the moment of a
time particle then duration would be equal to a moment in measure.
Time need not only be photonic in nature; it could be any
fundamental particle that exists collectively as a waveform, such as
the electron beam for example. Here, the speeding electron has the
property of moments by virtue of its relationship to the crest of a
waveform, therefore has the energy to produce work, causing change.
We can go further and include the more coarse natured acoustic
waves and water ripples, both of which have waveform behaviour with
moments, where the particles of its medium has energy, therefore the
capacity to do work.
Acoustic waves for example convey useful information by way of
its moments of energy, which we perceive as sound with its change in
pitch, loudness, softness, coarseness, sweetness and duration
creating the time effect. Not only can useful information be carried
within its frequencies; its energy can react violently with matter
and carry it through time in a most destructive manner, thereby
changing matter in physical terms.
The same applies to aquatic waves. Although they don’t usually
convey useful information in the same way as sound waves, they do
however have an effect on matter through the moments of its energy.
Its energy can influence matter in physical ways such as the erosion
of river banks and shorelines, of shifting sand, sediment and rock
etc; adding to the overall effect of passing time, as in all other
instances, through the process of change.
Principle 3:2 - Moments
The moment of any waveform could be defined as being an
instant or moment of time that has energy to do one particle of
Photons – the particles of time
In wave mechanics, the German physicist Max Planck proposed that
radiation was given off in chunks of energy he called ‘quanta’,
which creates electromagnetic radiation containing many billions of
quanta, or photons, speeding through space as waveforms.
These pulses of energy, as Coleman had suggested, appears to act
like the ticks of time, with each pulse or quanta emission and
absorption being the result of a change of an electron level.
That's how I perceived time to be. Each and every individual
photon behave as though they were particles of time, each particle
being one tick, one instant amongst countless billions of instances.
It’s the continuation and amalgamation of these particles of time
from the whole that creates the seemingly endless flow of time,
wherein we observe and experience constant change.
Principle 4: Photons behave as though they were
particles of time, with each photon emission and absorption being
one tick, one instant or quanta second of a larger event. It’s the
endless waves of quanta energy as a whole that creates time flow
in the microscopic and macroscopic world.
Fig 2: Creation of Time Particles
A solitary photon, if it could exist in such a condition, would
make no contribution towards the time flow effect; but with a cycle
of photons the result is a flow of energy in the form of waves from
which time is born.
Waves in all their forms present time-based information of one
kind or another, which would endow them with the description of
being time waves, and there are three good reasons for this
- Waves supply information.
- The information held within waves is of past events.
- Waves, being an energy form, have the potential to cause
The moment of creation or decay of photons via the time basis at
the atomic event horizon is the ‘where and when’ time is created and
decays. The emission or absorption of a photon relates to the moment
now, being the moment of activity causing a change of an electron
position to either a higher or lower energy level within an atomic
After emission from the time basis the photon is a free agent,
joining billions of other photons to become part of a time wave. As
a free-moving particle the photon inherits a past factor after the
event, but in due course it is eventually absorbed by another time
basis, and that inevitable future event gives the photon a future
Not only does the photon possess a past and future factor, it
also has a now factor by virtue of being its own record of the
original event. While outside the time basis of an atomic element, a
photon becomes an existing now particle, and continues to be that
moment now for the duration of its existence outside the time basis
between its moment of creation, (emission), and eventual decay,
(absorption). A now particle therefore, is a physical, discrete
existence of the moment ‘now’, together with a past and future
factor. It remains with that identity as an individual and separate
quantum particle-part of an atomic event possessing a past factor, a
now factor and a future factor, until its eventual decay at the
moment of absorption.
This view of time led to an assumption that the past, the moment
now and the future are unified within what we call the present, the
stage where events unfold.
The usage of the terms 'now' and 'the present' is found to be too
generalised; both being used synonymously to mean the same thing.
With reference to time physics they need to be more specifically
defined. The term, 'now', needs to be defined as the moment of
action, the smallest moment or tick of time, which is the quanta
second, a measure of time that is currently measured to be 10ˉ43
seconds according to Planck's time. It's one solitary change at the
event horizon of an atomic element, just one fractional part of a
longer sequence of events found in nature.
Principle 4:1 – Time waves and the moment ‘now’.
Photons, the moments of a time wave, possess three factors; a
past factor, a now factor and a future factor. This creates a
condition where ‘past, now, and future’ are unified into a time
wave that exists in the present, the stage where events unfold.
Forces – the controlling factor
Finally, there’s one other principle that needs to be taken into
account, and that is the effect of forces. Forces are a universal
requirement for all existence and are the prime factor in the
creation of energy, matter and time. Without it, nothing could come
into being. If forces didn’t have the ability to influence each
other, its influence on matter and energy would be zero. Mass,
energy and force would melt into the vacuum of space.
However, forces do exist, and they have two fundamental roles
within our universe:-
- They are responsible for the creation of 3-dimensional space
in which form can exist; having length, width and height.
- They are also responsible for the creation of energy, the
motive power of all activity and change, thereby creating the flow
Although a number of fundamental forces have been discovered or
assumed, there are two forces that appear to relate to time more
than any of the others, which are gravity and the electric force.
The electric force, as well as being responsible for chemical
bonding, is also responsible for the creation of electromagnetic
radiation, which we found in principle 3 is the root of time flow.
The process of breaking and making chemical bonds, activated by
radiant energy, which this hypothesis claims to be the very essence
of time itself, is the process that carries matter along the
mathematically measurable 4th dimension of time from creation to
Gravity, says Einstein, has an influence on photons, and this
influence can affect their rate of emission, therefore has an affect
on the rate of time flow . That statement by Einstein strongly
indicated to me that time itself is indeed energy based, which leads
to the assumption that time has a particle/wave nature. He stated
that the more massive a body the greater the effect would be. But
when mass becomes too great it will collapse under the force of its
own gravity. In such conditions it is believed that time,
(waveforms), will bend back on itself, or it may even cease to
function because of the colossal force of gravity. This has been one
of the views of time existing near or inside black holes, and also
at velocities close to that of light where mass increases to such a
degree that time functions are slowed down. Gravitational mass it
seems has a direct link with the rate of time flow, and the fact
that radiant energy cannot escape from a massive force like that of
a black hole where even time stops, leads to a very strong argument
in favour of time and energy being two features of the same thing.
These two major forces, the electric force and gravity, alongside
the others have the ability to influence mass, energy, time and
Principle 5: The fundamental forces of nature are the
controlling factors of our existence. They create the 3 dimensions
of space, holding matter together to give them form and substance.
They also provide the means for energy transfer, from which motion
and time flow are born.
With this basic model in mind, it would appear time’s physical
existence is not only related to space, but has a more direct
relationship with the atomic structure of matter where time itself
is created at the time bases, (the outer boundary or atomic event
horizon) of atomic elements. The emission of energy is the cause of
time flow that has power to move matter forwards along the time
dimension towards its future of ultimate death or destruction and
Time has been shown to be continuously created by the emission of
energy; and after emission, it exists as a flow of moments in
waveform (time waves), which eventually decays on absorption by
other masses. It can therefore be assumed that time is the product
of energy transfer between masses.
The assumptions of this hypothesis points to the conclusion that
time has physical properties. It has a particle/wave duality, which
can explain a long standing question regarding the dilemma of past,
present/now and future and that time has a discrete nature. The
past, now and future are all unified into one particle, where each
of these three factors of time are relative to its origin of
emission, it’s current status, and final event of absorption.
If someone asks, ‘What is Time’, our answer might be, ‘Time is
energy; and if that question was followed by, ‘What is the cause of
time’ we might say, ‘It’s the transfer of energy between masses
through the influence of a force’?
This conclusion can therefore unify the whole hypothesis into one
‘all-inclusive principle’, which states:
Atomic elements possess a mass basis and a time basis
that combines under the influence of fundamental forces; and when
coupled with a source of energy, being the power of change, matter
is set into motion with a time function.
Fig 3: Atom with Mass Basis and Time Basis
Source of References:
James A Coleman: Relativity for the Layman, pages 118-119.
Penguin Books 1972
Paul Davies. About Time, page 180. Published by Penguin Books
Albert Einstein: Relativity. The Special and General Theory,
page 180-181. Translation by Robert W Lawson, published by Methuen &
Co Ltd., 1920, reprinted 1962.
Copyright by Ron Larter
Reprinted with permission
Note about the Author
Ron Larter, an undergraduate working towards a degree in physics and
an independent researcher, has spent many years investigating the
nature of time. Even before he embarked on a degree course he came to
the conclusion that time itself has a direct link with energy, in
fact, time and energy appears to be two aspects of the same thing,
or perhaps are indeed the same thing.
Having shared his findings with colleges, some academics have
agreed with his proposal while others strongly opposed it. The most
recent reader of his paper was the physicist, Joseph A Rybczyk, who
said that he can agree with much of his work. However, he had some
reservations about his conclusion that time might have some form of