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HUMAN RIGHTS - FGM/C is a violation of the physical and psychosexual integrity of girls and inherently contradicts gender equality. There are many international treaties and conventions that condemn harmful practices. A specific focus on female genital mutilation/cutting is found in UN General Assembly Resolution 56/128 on Traditional or Customary Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Girls (2001) and in the Protocol on the Rights of Women in Africa, or Maputo Protocol (2003). Despite of these efforts, at least 2 million girls undergo FGM each year...

WARNING: THIS ARTICLE DEALS WITH GRAPHIC CONTENT

Related Resources  |  Books and Magazines

Female Genital Mutilation (FGM)

At least 130 million women in Africa have been circumcised, and two million more girls undergo the practice every year in 28 African countries, mostly in the continent's north and central areas.

Female circumcision is just beginning to get attention in Africa, and about 13 countries now punish the practice with jail terms. But with the exception of Burkina Faso, where the government has vigorously enforced the laws, the laws are largely irrelevant. Even in some places where it is illegal, medical personnel perform circumcisions in government hospitals. The only solution is to change attitudes on the village level, and that's where people like Ms. Bagayoko come in.

About 15 percent of those who undergo genital mutilation, mainly women in the Horn of Africa, suffer the most dangerous and extreme version, infibulation. Isnino Shuriye, who was also at the Nairobi meeting, performed infibulations among the Somali community in northern Kenya. She would cut off the clitoris and all the labia of 7-year-old girls. She would sew up the girls to be totally smooth, with a pencil eraser-sized opening for menses and urine. Each girl's legs were bound together for weeks so scars could form. Ms. Shuriye used no anesthetic.

All types of female circumcision have huge psychological and physical dangers. Some girls bleed to death during the operation, or die of tetanus or infection shortly after. But for infibulated women, the dangers are even greater. Many infibulated women suffer constant infections and other health problems because urine and blood back up. Their husbands must bring a knife to their wedding night to cut them open. Childbirth often is fatal for infibulated women and their babies, and their wounds make them much more vulnerable to the AIDS virus.

But the health problems that convinced Ms. Bagayoko never budged Ms. Shuriye. Members of the group Womankind brought doctors to talk to her, but she felt that they were just trying to plant Western ideologies. Ms. Bagayoko said that although many women suffer gynecological problems, "people say it's because of bad spirits. It's not attributed to the circumcision."

The practice damages girls in other ways. Sophia Noor of Womankind Kenya says that many girls are so traumatized by the pain that they never go back to school after they are circumcised. The economic and social effects of girls' leaving school by age 7 are incalculable.

Despite these problems, the practice thrives. Many Muslims, and not only Muslims, believe uncut women to be dirty. Women who can feel sexual pleasure are considered impossible to control and so are unmarriageable. "I know many families that have decided not to circumcise their daughters," says Ms. Bagayoko. "But they can't talk about it openly lest their daughters be shunned."

Source: http://www.nytimes.com/2004/07/05/opinion/05MON3.html
Mutilating Africa's Daughters: Laws Unenforced, Practices Unchanged
by Tina Rosenberg



Image Source >>


PS 1

Apologetics and Rationalizations for Sadistic Mutilations of Women's Genitalia, now in the USA.

Today a "nick", tomorrow (or today behind closed doors) the full mutilation.
What a stark and utter betrayal of children and women.

Nobody dares to say, the parents who do this to their daughters should be arrested and deported if they dare to perform the mutilations by sending the girls overseas.  Doctors who do it in the USA should also be arrested and lose their licenses.   Boston must not become Baghdad, Chicago become Cairo, etc.   And no, the AAP does not have "good intentions" here.  This is vicious MD sadism against girls and women, even if done by a female MD or "nurse".  It is, however, glossed over by smiles and excuses!  We are only trying to help the girls, to protect them, by cutting them on the most sensitive parts of their sexual organs with our knives!  See how kind and caring we are!   No. You are an ugly bunch of life-haters, making excuses for one of the more toxic aspects of Islam.

It is yet another and quite dirty incremental step towards Islamic totalitariansm within the USA, promulgated and masked by a corrupted and dangerous system of authoritarian and sadistic hospital-MDs.  Brought to you by the same fanatics who burned Wilhelm Reich's books.

Write to them, and tell them what you think:

And no, don't be polite on this one. 
Give them hell.

And for heaven's sake, stop going to any doctor who does this filthy thing, or apologizes for it.

Outrageous.

James DeMeo, PhD

------------------------

The American Academy of Pediatrics is suggesting that American doctors be given permission to perform a ceremonial pinprick or “nick” on girls from these cultures if it would keep their families from sending them overseas for the full circumcision.

Group Backs Ritual 'Nick' as Female Circumcision Option
By PAM BELLUCK
http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/07/health/policy/07cuts.html

Don't miss follow-ups: PS 2  |  PS 3


Fact sheet N°241
February 2010

Source: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs241/en/

Female genital mutilation

Key facts

  • Female genital mutilation (FGM) includes procedures that intentionally alter or injure female genital organs for non-medical reasons.
  • The procedure has no health benefits for girls and women.
  • Procedures can cause severe bleeding and problems urinating, and later, potential childbirth complications and newborn deaths.
  • An estimated 100 to 140 million girls and women worldwide are currently living with the consequences of FGM.
  • It is mostly carried out on young girls sometime between infancy and age 15 years.
  • In Africa an estimated 92 million girls from 10 years of age and above have undergone FGM.
  • FGM is internationally recognized as a violation of the human rights of girls and women.

Female genital mutilation (FGM) comprises all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons.

The practice is mostly carried out by traditional circumcisers, who often play other central roles in communities, such as attending childbirths. Increasingly, however, FGM is being performed by health care providers.

FGM is recognized internationally as a violation of the human rights of girls and women. It reflects deep-rooted inequality between the sexes, and constitutes an extreme form of discrimination against women. It is nearly always carried out on minors and is a violation of the rights of children. The practice also violates a person's rights to health, security and physical integrity, the right to be free from torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, and the right to life when the procedure results in death.

Procedures

Female genital mutilation is classified into four major types.

  • Clitoridectomy: partial or total removal of the clitoris (a small, sensitive and erectile part of the female genitals) and, in very rare cases, only the prepuce (the fold of skin surrounding the clitoris).
  • Excision: partial or total removal of the clitoris and the labia minora, with or without excision of the labia majora (the labia are "the lips" that surround the vagina).
  • Infibulation: narrowing of the vaginal opening through the creation of a covering seal. The seal is formed by cutting and repositioning the inner, or outer, labia, with or without removal of the clitoris.
  • Other: all other harmful procedures to the female genitalia for non-medical purposes, e.g. pricking, piercing, incising, scraping and cauterizing the genital area.

No health benefits, only harm

FGM has no health benefits, and it harms girls and women in many ways. It involves removing and damaging healthy and normal female genital tissue, and interferes with the natural functions of girls' and women's bodies.

Immediate complications can include severe pain, shock, haemorrhage (bleeding), tetanus or sepsis (bacterial infection), urine retention, open sores in the genital region and injury to nearby genital tissue.

Long-term consequences can include:

  • recurrent bladder and urinary tract infections;
  • cysts;
  • infertility;
  • an increased risk of childbirth complications and newborn deaths;
  • the need for later surgeries. For example, the FGM procedure that seals or narrows a vaginal opening (type 3 above) needs to be cut open later to allow for sexual intercourse and childbirth. Sometimes it is stitched again several times, including after childbirth, hence the woman goes through repeated opening and closing procedures, further increasing and repeated both immediate and long-term risks.

Who is at risk?

Procedures are mostly carried out on young girls sometime between infancy and age 15, and occasionally on adult women. In Africa, about three million girls are at risk for FGM annually.

Between 100 to 140 million girls and women worldwide are living with the consequences of FGM. In Africa, about 92 million girls age 10 years and above are estimated to have undergone FGM.

The practice is most common in the western, eastern, and north-eastern regions of Africa, in some countries in Asia and the Middle East, and among certain immigrant communities in North America and Europe.

Cultural, religious and social causes

The causes of female genital mutilation include a mix of cultural, religious and social factors within families and communities.

  • Where FGM is a social convention, the social pressure to conform to what others do and have been doing is a strong motivation to perpetuate the practice.
  • FGM is often considered a necessary part of raising a girl properly, and a way to prepare her for adulthood and marriage.
  • FGM is often motivated by beliefs about what is considered proper sexual behaviour, linking procedures to premarital virginity and marital fidelity. FGM is in many communities believed to reduce a woman's libido, and thereby is further believed to help her resist "illicit" sexual acts. When a vaginal opening is covered or narrowed (type 3 above), the fear of pain of opening it, and the fear that this will be found out, is expected to further discourage "illicit" sexual intercourse among women with this type of FGM.
  • FGM is associated with cultural ideals of femininity and modesty, which include the notion that girls are “clean” and "beautiful" after removal of body parts that are considered "male" or "unclean".
  • Though no religious scripts prescribe the practice, practitioners often believe the practice has religious support.
  • Religious leaders take varying positions with regard to FGM: some promote it, some consider it irrelevant to religion, and others contribute to its elimination.
  • Local structures of power and authority, such as community leaders, religious leaders, circumcisers, and even some medical personnel can contribute to upholding the practice.
  • In most societies, FGM is considered a cultural tradition, which is often used as an argument for its continuation.
  • In some societies, recent adoption of the practice is linked to copying the traditions of neighbouring groups. Sometimes it has started as part of a wider religious or traditional revival movement.
  • In some societies, FGM is being practised by new groups when they move into areas where the local population practice FGM.

International response

In 1997, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a joint statement with the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) against the practice of FGM. A new statement, with wider United Nations support, was then issued in February 2008 to support increased advocacy for the abandonment of FGM.

The 2008 statement documents new evidence collected over the past decade about the practice. It highlights the increased recognition of the human rights and legal dimensions of the problem and provides current data on the frequency and scope of FGM. It also summarizes research about why FGM continues, how to stop it, and its damaging effects on the health of women, girls and newborn babies.

Since 1997, great efforts have been made to counteract FGM, through research, work within communities, and changes in public policy. Progress at both international and local levels includes:

  • wider international involvement to stop FGM;
  • the development of international monitoring bodies and resolutions that condemn the practice;
  • revised legal frameworks and growing political support to end FGM; and
  • in some countries, decreasing practice of FGM, and an increasing number of women and men in practising communities who declare their support to end it.

Research shows that, if practising communities themselves decide to abandon FGM, the practice can be eliminated very rapidly.

WHO response

In 2008, the World Health Assembly passed a resolution (WHA61.16) on the elimination of FGM, emphasizing the need for concerted action in all sectors - health, education, finance, justice and women's affairs.

WHO efforts to eliminate female genital mutilation focus on:

  • advocacy: developing publications and advocacy tools for international, regional and local efforts to end FGM within a generation;
  • research: generating knowledge about the causes and consequences of the practice, how to eliminate it, and how to care for those who have experienced FGM;
  • guidance for health systems: developing training materials and guidelines for health professionals to help them treat and counsel women who have undergone procedures.

WHO is particularly concerned about the increasing trend for medically trained personnel to perform FGM. WHO strongly urges health professionals not to perform such procedures.

For more information contact:

WHO Media centre
Telephone: +41 22 791 2222
E-mail: [email protected]


PS 2

Intact America, one of the more active child-protection organizations, is taking on the AAP. They previously did a good job getting signatures to petition the CDC to not advocate the official medical quackery of boy-mutilation as a method to "prevent AIDS". Historically, boy-mutilation was originally proposed in the Americas as a measure to "prevent masturbation" and specifically the heinous disease known as "masturbatory insanity". That was an officially-recognized disorder in the medical journals of the late 1800s, and the Christian or non-religious MDs of that day, just as today, fell under persuasion from Jewish doctors that it would be a good thing if everyone did it. And so within 50 years or so, it exploded from a tiny percentage of immigrants, into a mainstream mutilation of nearly 80% of all men in the English-speaking world, where it had previously not existed. Today, it is promoted, also without evidence, as a "hygenic" measure -- a ridiculous argument when one considers how most of the world's male population is intact, not mutilated, and is not suffering from epidemics of genital disease, including AIDS. With hard work in public education by oppositional groups, the rates in the USA are today down to about 50% of all baby boys. That's still 50% too high, and even Jewish activists have joined the anti-mutilation organizations, seeking to end them.

Intact-America is today taking on the AAP over its approval of girl-mutilation, something which the AAP did under pressure from largely-Muslim doctors servicing the Islamic communities, who either want to mutilate the genitals of girls, or who think they can reduce the more serious mutilations by doing smaller ones in the hospitals. Muslims (and a few Coptic Christians) do these mutilations for basically the same religious-superstitions reasons as did the masturbation-anxious physicians of 100 years ago. The AAP thinks a "small cut" will be sufficient to mollify misogynistic immigrants whose ideology views female sexual feeling as a dirty evil needing to be stamped out. The goal of FGM always was, to wipe out the female sexual drive. So this measure by the AAP, if it stands, will be used in opposition to existing laws which make FGM a criminal act. In fact what will happen is, with the AAP approvals, Muslim doctors will begin doing it, and test cases will then go to the courts. They will firstly do only the "little nick", and argue with smooth-talk, with arrogant proclamations that even if it is illegal they will "do it anyhow" so why not "keep it sanitary, in the hospitals", with PC victimhood and "religious freedom" language. "The Jews are allowed to give the holy sacraments to their boy's penises, to cleanse them of The Devil of sexual feeling, so we should be allowed to bless our girls and rid them of The Devil of sexual feeling in the same manner" they will say. And the courts will probably go along with it, striking down existing federal and state laws prohibiting the mutilations. and thinking it will remain "only a nick". But from there, we will see special clinics devoted to Islamic FGM, just as exist within the Muslim world. And the horrific nature of it will grow, with full clitoridectomies, as nobody in social services will be checking up on such girls. And it will fit magnificently with veils, polygamy, child-marriages (old men to young girls), mosque-violence against infidels, and all the rest which life-hating PC ideology already tries to justify and defend. It will then grow and spread, and only 20 years down the road when older women come forward will the NYT or other lib-newspapers write a hand-wringing articles about "how could this have developed?", ignoring their long-time role in Islamic apologetics.

Evidence from clinics in Africa already have shown how compromises on the mutilations allows them to grow and spread, while strict forbiddance with criminal penalties and loss-of-license for professionals who do them, works to reduce them in a dramatic manner.

This must be stopped before it emerges into daylight, after which it gets social oxygen and spreads. The AAP needs to reverse this ill-considered approval of "the little nick", which will grow into full-scale FGM as seen elsewhere in the world.

Your signature would help. See below.

http://org2.democracyinaction.org/o/5922/t/6483/campaign.jsp?campaign_KEY=2452 

You can add to or edit their form-letter as desired. Professionals especially are encouraged, to take a stand, using your full names and credentials.

If this issue is important to you, to stop boy-mutilation and girl-mutilation, consider to get on the mailing list of this organization and spread the information through your own personal networks.

James DeMeo, PhD

OBRL sponsors life-energy research and educational events; we need your support to continue funding new and innovative projects. If you find this material of value, please donate to OBRL: http://www.orgonelab.org/donation  or, purchase books on related subjects from our on-line bookstore: http://www.naturalenergyworks.net
 


25,278 Petition Signatures Delivered To The CDC!
(in opposition to boy-mutilation as an "AIDS prevention" measure.)

But now America's baby girls are at risk!
Please take action to protect them today.
http://org2.democracyinaction.org/o/5922/t/6483/campaign.jsp?campaign_KEY=2452

In late April, I spoke via conference call with Dr. Peter Kilmarx, Chief of HIV/AIDS Prevention at the Centers for Disease Control, and several other officials from the CDC, to urge them to refrain from recommending routine circumcision for baby boys. I told them Intact America had a petition from thousands of you who felt the same way.
On May 6th, we followed up by sending 25,278 signatures to the CDC to drive home the message.
I want to thank you and the tens of thousands of intactivists who added your names to this petition calling for the protection of our baby boys.
It's not over between us and the CDC. We'll be in touch to let you know its response to our petition.
But our efforts can't end here.

A new threat has surfaced, and this time it's our baby girls who are at risk.

Late last month, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) issued a new policy statement calling for a lift of the Federal ban outlawing all forms of female genital mutilation ("FGM") in the United States.
We are stunned by this affront to 30 years of global efforts to stop female genital cutting.
Please send a letter to the AAP demanding that it retract its dangerously misguided policy statement immediately and leave our baby girls intact! http://org2.democracyinaction.org/o/5922/t/6483/campaign.jsp?campaign_KEY=2452

Thank you again for all that you do to help keep America's babies intact.

Sincerely,

Georganne Chapin
Executive Director, Intact America
www.intactamerica.org

 


PS 3

Good news, and bad...  Little girls across the USA can breathe a little easier tonight.

Following a howl of protest from multiple persons and organizations, dozens of letters from every quarter, professionals, women's groups, private individuals, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) reversed and dropped its recent ill-conceived approval for female genital mutilation.  Here's a report:

EQUALITY NOW WELCOMES DECISION BY AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS (AAP) TO WITHDRAW ITS 2010 POLICY STATEMENT ON FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION (FGM) THAT ENDORSED PEDIATRICANS’ “NICKING” OF GIRLS’ GENITALIA

New York - International human rights organization Equality Now welcomes the AAP’s decision to withdraw its ill-conceived revised policy statement on female genital mutilation (FGM) issued on April 26, 2010. The new policy statement essentially promoted Type IV FGM, as categorized by the World Health Organization (WHO), and suggested that federal and state laws might be more effective if they “enabled pediatricians to reach out to families by offering a ‘ritual nick’.” In a release issued today, the AAP stated that it has “retired” its 2010 revised statement on FGM, is opposed to “all forms of female genital cutting” and “does not endorse the practice of offering a 'clitoral nick.'”

Immediately following the announcement about AAP’s new policy statement on April 26, 2010, Equality Now launched a global campaign, which called on its membership of over 35,000 individuals and organizations from 160 countries to put pressure on the AAP to revoke its statement. The outpouring of deep concern demonstrated by several women’s rights advocates, human rights organizations, health care providers, and individual members around the world in response to this campaign has been inspiring and overwhelming. A significant outcome of Equality Now’s campaign was also a statement jointly signed by WHO and United Nations agencies, UNICEF, UNFPA, and UNIFEM, that challenged the AAP’s contentions about FGM and the harm any of its forms, including ‘nicking’, cause girls and women. The WHO/UN statement also confirmed the importance of looking at all forms of FGM as a form of violence and discrimination against women and girls.

“This is a crucial step forward in the movement to continue raising awareness about FGM, especially in the U.S., where it is practiced by some immigrant communities. This campaign has brought to light the importance of identifying FGM as a harmful cultural practice that together we must and can end. The work of the African anti-FGM grassroots movement has finally reached our shores and we hope to move forward and ensure the protection of girls in the U.S. and elsewhere from the practice,” says Taina Bien-Aimé, Equality Now’s Executive Director. Ironically, news reports today indicate that the AAP is not isolated in its misunderstandings about FGM and the Royal Australian New Zealand College of Obstetricians is now planning to discuss backing "ritual nicks", a modified form of genital mutilation, next month. Taina Bien-Aimé further warned, “Before heading in the wrong direction on this issue, the Royal Australian New Zealand College of Obstetricians must learn from the experience of the international campaign against AAP, and from the resounding clarification provided in the WHO/UN joint statement.”

Equality Now hopes that the momentum built around discussions about FGM continues in the US with the swift passage of The Girls Protection Act (H.R. 5137), a new bipartisan legislation introduced by Congressman Joseph Crowley (D-NY) and Congresswoman Mary Bono Mack (R-CA) that would close the loophole in the federal law prohibiting FGM by making it illegal to transport a minor girl living in the U.S. out of the country for the purpose of FGM. The bill will hopefully also call for the launch of culturally sensitive outreach programs in FGM-practicing immigrant communities in the U.S. to educate parents about the lifelong harms of FGM.

Equality Now is an international human rights organization that works to protect and promote the civil, political, economic and social rights of girls and women around the world. Source: http://www.equalitynow.org/english/pressroom/press_releases/aapwithdrawal_20100527_en.html

For more information visit  www.equalitynow.org


 

Sometimes public criticism and protest works. Now, if only little boys can be equally protected, with an end to this violent contempt for the penis and male sexuality.

The bad news: Australia is considering an identical ruling to the AAP, to allow for "limited" female genital mutilation, which as discussed in prior postings will most certainly plant the seeds for more horrific mutilations later on.

A better solution would be to give a lengthy prison sentence and then deport any "Islamic cutter" -- the sadist-specialists who travel from home to home and perform this butchery -- and to likewise punish with jail terms and/or deport the fathers and mothers who do such a barbaric act, or any "health" professional who does so.  There is a need for muscle and teeth in laws for protection of children against razor wielding sadists, with or without the "seal of approval" of medical organizations or mosque-leaders.

J.D.


   Resources: Books, Magazines, DVDs  

 
Desert Flower: The Extraordinary Journey Of A Desert Nomad
Author Central (Author), Cathleen Miller (Author)

Amazon.com Review
By age 6, Waris Dirie was herding her family's sheep and goats, fending off hyenas and wild dogs as the family carved a path through Africa. She was just twice that age when she ran off into the vast furnace of the Somali desert to escape an arranged marriage to a much older man. Traveling for days without food and water, she made her way to Mogadishu and later to London as a servant to her uncle, the Somalian ambassador. There she wrestled with culture shock and got her first taste of the modeling life that eventually brought her into the public eye. Dirie is resilient, having survived drought, hunger, and the ritual female genital mutilation that marks a step toward womanhood among some traditional Moslems but, argue critics, steals or ruins many girls' lives. "As we traveled throughout Somalia," says Dirie, "we met families and I played with their daughters. When we visited them again, the girls were missing. No one spoke the truth about their absence or even spoke of them at all." As a special ambassador to the United Nations, Dirie has spoken out loudly on this subject and championed environmental causes, too. How much of her sometimes breathless story is gospel truth and how much embellished is hard to say. Like Dirie herself, though, the combination is intriguing, powerful, and unique. --Francesca Coltrera --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

From Publishers Weekly
Joining the current rage for model memoirs (see review above) is Dirie, a native of Somalia, who has for more than a decade stalked the world's catwalks and appeared in numerous glossy magazines. This, however, is no fluff-job dictated into a tape recorder on transatlantic flights, then recomposed by a hired gun back in New York. Rather, it is a striking account of a personal odyssey that began in the Somali desert, where Dirie grew up without shoes, living amid nomadic tribes and tyrannized by patriarchal strictures. As a pubescent girl, Dirie was circumcised? a procedure described here in chilling detail? before escaping an arranged marriage to stay with an aunt in Mogadishu. Landing a job as a house servant in London, Dirie struggled to launch a modeling career while dodging British immigration authorities and the dreadful results of marriages of convenience. At the end of this affecting and at times very entertaining book, Dirie's metamorphosis from desert nomad into jetsetting nomad culminates in a post as a human rights ambassador to the UN, where, these days, Dirie campaigns for the eradication of female circumcision and women's rights around the globe. It's easy to forget that Dirie's memoir is a book about someone whose success has come from posing for the camera. Indeed, it is Dirie's remarkable lack of narcissism or entitlement that makes her so captivating a raconteur. Photos. Editor: Billy Kelly; agent: Christie Fletcher/Carol Mann Agency; author tour. (Sept.) FYI: Foreign rights have sold in 10 countries. Copyright 1998 Reed Business Information, Inc. --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.


  Related Articles 

A Cutting Tradition
By SARA CORBETT
Inside a circumcision ceremony for young Muslim girls.
January 20, 2008MagazineNews

Voices Rise in Egypt to Shield Girls From an Old Tradition
By MICHAEL SLACKMAN
Circumcision, as supporters call it, or female genital mutilation, as opponents refer to it, was suddenly a ferocious focus of debate in Egypt this summer. September 20, 2007WorldNews

Editorial Observer
Mutilating Africa's Daughters: Laws Unenforced, Practices Unchanged
By TINA ROSENBERG
Even in countries where the practice is illegal, the only way to stop female circumcision in Africa is change on the village level.
July 5, 2004OpinionEditorial

Health & Fitness
A Conversation With Nawal Nour; A Life Devoted to Stopping The Suffering of Mutilation
By CLAUDIA DREIFUS
In all the vast territory of the American health care system, there is nothing quite like the African Women's Health Practice of the obstetrics and gynecology department at Brigham and Women's Hospital. Many African women immigrants come here seeking not just routine care in the specialty, but treatment for special gynecologic conditions related to female circumcision.
July 11, 2000HealthInterview

Week in Review Desk
Africa's Culture War: Old Customs, New Values
By HOWARD W. FRENCH
Throughout much of the continent of Africa, from the ritual slavery of the Ewe to female genital mutilation to polygamy, ancient practices that strike both Westerners and many Africans as abhorrent coexist side by side with modernity, and show no sign of imminent abandonment.
February 2, 1997Week in ReviewNews

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