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Finding Faults

by Arthur "Art" Ryan

On Saturday, 4 Sep 2010, the city of Christchurch, New Zealand was violently shaken by a 7.1 magnitude earthquake. The 400,000 people were awakened to find approximately 500 buildings destroyed. Yet, despite the devastation, no one was killed. However, that is not the real surprise of the event. That distinction belongs to the fact that the quake ran along a new fault line.

Professor Mark Quigley of Canterbury University is quoted as saying “looks to us that it could be a new fault.”1 He further stated “one side of the earth lurched to the right… up to 11 feet and in some places been thrust up.”1

The description of what happened is not unusual. Earthquakes happen all the time. What is of concern is the location along an area that previously had no fault line. New fault lines should be given special attention. You may ask, why?

The building of stress within tectonic plates is a continuing event. (See: Causes of Plate Stress2). This stress is usually dissipated, rather violently, along existing fault lines in the form of earthquakes. But, in order to create a new fault line, another force needs to be brought to bear.

Imagine an egg in your hand. If you squeeze it from end to end, you are unable to crush it. The egg is an example of a solid tectonic plate. It can withstand immense pressure (force). To break the solid surface of the egg or tectonic plate, you need to add another force; such as, in case of the egg; tapping its side to obtain a crack. The same applies to the tectonic plate; another force needs to be introduced.

Now imagine some hot chocolate that has began to cool on the surface. A thick film has formed that moves around, collectively, as ‘you blow on it. The film is free to move because the edges are not as tightly bound to the cup as the film is to itself. The edge of the film simulates the boundaries between tectonic plates (fault lines). That is where we experience earthquakes. It is a pressure relief, if you will.

While you are still using your imagination, envision an old steam engine locomotive. A large tank of water with a firebox attached, designed to use the pressure produced to propel the train down the tracks. This marvel of engineering was constructed with pressure relief valves to prevent a catastrophic failure. If the valve malfunctions or is overwhelmed, the water tank will explode. This example is provided so that you may better understand the process involved in the creation of a new fault line.

 

So, either the existing fault lines around the tectonic plate that New Zealand sits on malfunctioned or they were overwhelmed by an outside force. In order for them to malfunction, some sort of welding (bonding) process would have to have happened. The adjacent plates need to be reinforced in their binding to one another. This is unlikely!!

That leaves the “overwhelmed” option. In the book “Are We Worth Our Salt?”3, we are told to expect more frequent, increasingly violent earthquakes and that quakes would begin to show up in places where they normally do not happen. This warning is issued as a prelude to a phenomenon known as an Earth Crust Displacement, Crust-Shift, or Poleshift. The book is written to describe a natural process that could culminate in cataclysm.

So, turn your imagination back on. Try to envision the stress that would be added to the tectonic plates as the polar caps succumb to centrifugal force and move towards the equator. That would be extremely devastating event, alright! As a lead up to the event, we are told, in the book, to look for more and more, increasingly violent earthquakes and that the more intense movements would create new fault lines.

Was this a lucky prediction or is there more? If the crust is beginning to displace we should have other indicators. After all, one new fault line seems harmless. Let’s look at the news to see if there is a greater issue.

Sample News Articles

  • “ NZ cleans up after quake that tore new fault line” Robert Griffith AP of 5 Sep 20101

  •  “Unknown Arkansas Fault Can Trigger Magnitude 7 Earthquake” AP of 22 Sep 20094

  • “Two New Fault Lines Found in the Pacific Northwest” Softpedia undated5
  • “California Seismic Map is Updated to Include Newly Found Fault Lines” AP of 28 Apr 20106
  • “Potentially Active Faults Near Olympia, Washington Sate, U.S., Identified” Science Daily of 9 Aug 20107
  • “Haiti earthquake caused by new fault line” UK Telegraph of 14 Aug 20108

A Google search for “new fault lines” going back to the middle of 2008 will result in the discovery that new fault lines also exist in New Jersey, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Tennessee, and Connecticut, and more specifically; in places such as Seattle and North Bend/Whidbey Island. A total of nearly 70 new fault lines have been found in the United States alone. A broader look will undoubtedly reveal even more world-wide. Can we afford to idly sit back and ignore what is happening?

If this has not awakened you to a very serious issue, you are invited to see that in “Are We Worth Our Salt?”3, we are further warned that the number and intensity of earthquakes would increase. A quick check of the news will also confirm that this will be and is happening. See: “Big Quakes More Frequent Than Thought on San Andreas Fault”, Science Daily of 21 Aug 20109 and “Deadly Samoa-Tonga Earthquake Concealed Two Other Quakes, Seismic Sleuths Discover” Science Daily of 19 Aug 201010. The later of these two outlines a “Quake Pattern Never Seen Previously”, where three massive earthquakes happen is such a quick fashion that one masked the existence of the other two.

Previous doubts as to the validity of an Earth Crust Displacement are slowly dissipating. Mainstream Science has stepped in to confirm that Poleshifts have happened in the past. These Crust-Shifts are now called “True Polar Wander”. Professor Adam Malo of of Princeton University has conducted two studies to attempt to prove the theory.

In light of the above, along with the accuracy of these and other predictions made in “Are We Worth Our Salt?”3, such as a foretold description of the appearance of the sea floor below the polar ice prior to man laying eyes on it, can we afford to not examine the process steps outline within it that can be taken to avert a catastrophe. I truly hope that you think – “NOT!”

References

  1. “NZ cleans up after quake that tore new fault line”
  2. “The Causes of Tectonic Plate Stress”
  3. “Our We Worth Our Salt?”
  4. “Unknown Arkansas Fault Can Trigger Magnitude 7 Earthquake”
  5. “Two New Fault Lines Found in the Pacific Northwest”
  6. “California Seismic Map Is Updated to Include Newly Found Fault Lines”
  7. “Potentially Active Faults Near Olympia, Washington State, US, Identified”
  8. “Haiti earthquake caused by new fault line”
  9. “Big Quakes More Frequent Than Thought on San Andreas Fault, Research Shows”
  10. “Deadly Samoa-Tonga Earthquake Concealed Two Other Quakes, Seismic Sleuths Discover”
     

Copyright Arthur Ryan 2010
Presented with permission of the author

Articles by Art Ryan

Don't miss other articles by the author:

Art Ryan's official website:  www.sciencedoubts.com
and his Blog: http://sciencedoubt.blogspot.com/

 


About the Author

Arthur “Art” Ryan is an independent researcher and author, who is a full-time employee supporting a major railroad and a small business owner of a process engineering consulting company, that enjoys all manner of things science. He is a baseball and football fan, who values his privacy and therefore writes under a pseudonym.

His book concerning Earth Changes is called “Are We Worth Our Salt?” which can be purchased through Lulu by visiting http://stores.lulu.com/arthurryan or Amazon and may be procured at you local Barnes and Noble store.

Art accepts constructive criticism about his ideas and welcomes evidence that support or dispute his thoughts. Questions and comments can be addressed to Art through his official website www.sciencedoubts.com

At his site, Art has opened a controlled, closed forum where intellectuals, professionals, academics, and aspiring amateurs can express their thoughts, findings, and alternate theories under pseudonyms; thereby avoiding possible damage to their careers or loss of existing funding. This site is to be driven by its users and will grow to fit the need. Those interested in writing on Science Doubt are invited to review the “Outstanding Questions” and “News Articles” sections for topic ideas or to contact the editor about your own.


Are We Worth Our Salt?

Have you ever wondered what is behind some of the World's mysteries? Do you ponder Earth changes and natural climate swings? If so, this is a book for you. Addressed herein is a primary thought that when first published by another author "electrified" Albert Einstein.
Yet, a cause for the theory was not previously given. This book will show the process steps needed to bring it to culmination. A cause and effect approach will be brought into play to solve this dramatic puzzle. Our Civilization is on the line and it requires your assistance to save it. Are you up to the challenge?

Also available here:
http://stores.lulu.com/arthurryan
ISBN 978-0-6152-1270-8
ID: 2469512


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Subject Related Resources: Books, Magazines, DVDs

      Recommended Reading

 

Tectonic Faults: Agents of Change on a Dynamic Earth
(Dahlem Workshop Reports)
Mark R. Handy (Editor), Greg Hirth (Editor), Niels Hovius (Editor)


Tectonic faults are sites of localized motion, both at the Earth's surface and within its dynamic interior. Faulting is directly linked to a wide range of global phenomena, including long-term climate change and the evolution of hominids, the opening and closure of oceans, and the rise and fall of mountain ranges.
In Tectonic Faults, scientists from a variety of disciplines explore the connections between faulting and the processes of the Earth's atmosphere, surface, and interior. They consider faults and faulting from many different vantage points—including those of surface analysts, geochemists, material scientists, and physicists—and in all scales, from seismic fault slip to moving tectonic plates.

 

They address basic issues, including the imaging of faults from Earth's surface to the base of the lithosphere and deeper, the structure and rheology of fault rocks, and the role of fluids and melt on the physical properties of deforming rock. They suggest strategies for understanding the interaction of faulting with topography and climate, predicting fault behavior, and interpreting the impacts on the rock record and the human environment. Using an Earth Systems approach, Tectonic Faults provides a new understanding of feedback between faulting and Earth’s atmospheric, surface, and interior processes, and recommends new approaches for advancing knowledge of tectonic faults as an integral part of our dynamic planet.

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Keywords: Art Ryan, tectonic, fault, earthquake, geology, plates, crust, forces, google earth