
The Digital Orrery
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Solar System
ial, helvetica, sansserif" width="143" class="q">
Saturn
Planet 
Equatorial
Radius (km) 
Orbital
Period
in days 
Semimajor
axis
of orbit in AU 
Mercury 
2439 
87.97046 
0.387099 
Venus 
6051 
224.69815 
0.723326 
Earth 
6378.14 
365.25636053 
1.000018 
Mars 
3393.4 
686.9257 
1.523638 
Jupiter 
71,398 
4332.23025 
5.20248 
Saturn 
60,000 
10,800.4425 
9.56329 
Uranus 
25,400 
30,953.4765 
19.2937 
Neptune 
24,300 
60,839.6925 
30.2743 
Pluto 
1500 
91,305.195 
39.6823 
Solar
Radius 
696,000 



Astronomical Unit = AU =
149,597,870 km
Velocity of Light (in a vacuum)
c = 299,792,458 meters per second
= 186,282.4 miles per
second.
Solar System Size Comparison Poster by
Starry Night Store
Earth and Moon
CONSTANT

NUMERIC VALUE

Earth, Radius, Equatorial

3963.19245606 mi.
6,378,140 m

Earth, Circumference,
Equatorial

24,901.4726094 mi.
40,075,035.5351 m

Earth, Circumference, Mean

24,873.492365 mi.
40,030,005.6967 m

Earth, Arc Degree, Mean

69.0933962964 mi.
111,1950.42769 m

Earth, Radius, Mean

3958.73926185 mi.
6,370,973.27862 m

Earth, Radius, Polar

3949.90462476 mi.
6,356,755.28816 m

Flattening, axis ratio

0.996647186822

Flattening inverse

298.257

Flattening of the Earth

0.0033528131779

Inclination, Lunar Orbit,
Mean

5.1453964°

Wobble, Lunar Orbit
Inclination

± 0.0025°

Moon, Distance

384,399,070 m

Lunar Orbit Eccentricity

0.054900489

Moon, Radius, Mean

1,738,000 m

Obliquity of the Ecliptic

23.439291111°

Solar distance

149,597,870,000 m

Geographical Mile

1,855.32571922 m

Periodicity
Saros Cycle is an eclipse
cycle of 242 nodal months, 223 synodic periods, 239 anomalistic
months and 17 eclipse years.
242 x 27.21222 = 6585.357425
223 x 29.53059 = 6585.321321
239 x 27.55455 = 6585.536614
19 x 346.62006 = 6585.781197
Metonic Cycle is a cycle
that produces the same phase of the moon on the same date of the
tropical year every 19 years.
235 x 29.53059 = 6939.688388
255 x 27.21222 = 6939.116295
19 x 365.24219 = 6939.601660
MODULES

in degrees

Lunar Motion per Mean
Rotation

13.1403824445°

Mean Daily Lunar Motion

13.1763582244°

Solar Orbit per Day

0.985609119791°

Solar Orbit per Sidereal
Rotation

0.982918083604°

Solar Orbit per Nodal Month

26.8206129544°

Solar Orbit per Sidereal
Month

26.9284788014°

Solar Orbit per Synodic
Month

29.1056177173°

Periodicity Formulas
Sidereal Orbit

(365.25636042 + 1.1 x 10^{7} TE)
days

Tropical Year

(365.24219878  6.14 x 10^{6}
TE) days

Eclipse Year

(346.620031 + 3.2 x 10^{5} TE)
days

Anomalistic Year

(365.25964134 + 3.04 x 10^{6}
TE) days

Sidereal Lunar
Orbit

(27.3216610  2.0 x 10^{7} T)
days

Lunar Mean Daily
Sidereal Motion

(13.1763582975  1.0224 x 10^{8}
T)°

Lunar Synodical
Period

(29.5305992  2.0 x 10^{7} T)
days

Centenial General
Precession Longitude

(1.396291666... + 0.0006180555...T)°

Given TE = Julian centuries from day 0.5, 1900 ET
Given T = Tropical centuries from 1900.0 N
Definitions
Sidereal
Orbit 
is
a revolution relative to a fixed celestial
position. 
Sidereal
Noon 
is
the instant of transit of mean equinox
relative to a fixed meridian position. 
Fundamental
Epoch
of Sidereal Time 
(FE)
is the instant 12 hours, 0 days, 1900 years
A.D. with hours in mean sidereal time. 
Ephemeris
Time 
is
the actual count of solar days from a fixed
meridian. 
Tropical
Year (YT) 
is
the period from equinox to equinox. 
Eclipse
Year (YE) 
is
the period between the earth and lunar orbit
planes node crossings. 
Temporal
Unit (TU) 
is
36,525 mean solar days since Jan. 0.5, 1900,
UT. 
Greenwich
Mean
Sidereal Time (GT) 
=
0.0 hours UT = 12 hours + aFMS 
Universal
Time (UT) 
has
replaced Mean Solar Time due to a recognition
of the nonuniform rotation rate of the earth. 
Lunar
Synodic Period (S9) 
is
the period of time from one full or new moon
to another, that is the time between
consecutive alignments of the sun, earth and
moon on a plane perpendicular to the plane of
solar revolution. 
Precession
(PR) 
is
the retrograde rotation of the earth's axis
relative to fixed celestial reference. 
Annual
Parallax 
is
the viewpoint difference due to the change in
the earth's position relative to the sun. For
the nearest star the angle is about 0.000222.° 
Annual
Aberration 
is
the angular shift in apparent position
resulting from motion velocity of viewing from
orbiting (moving) earth. 
Diurnal
Parallax 
is
the viewpoint difference due to the rotation
of the earth. The amount varies with the
latitude of the observer. 
Diurnal
Aberration 
is
the result of observing from a spining
observing position on the surface of the
earth. Velocity of the observer causes
apparent shift to a maximum correction of
about 0.0008333°
at the equator. 
Atmospheric
Refraction 
is
the bending of light rays by the earth's
atmosphere. 
GRAVITY
Mass of the Sun
= 1.9891 x 10^{30} kg
Mass of the Earth = 5.974 x 10^{24}
kg
Mass of the Moon = 7.348031948 x 10^{22}
kg References:
Archaeoastronomy
According to Harleston*, he principle unit of measurement as used by Teotihuanacos was a
length of 1.059463 metres. Translated into feet this is 3.47593ft
and is accurate to within one part in 19,000 of the double royal Egyptian cubit
of 3.4757485ft, in later works he refined the figure still further to be correct
to within five decimal places of this length, of which he was at that time
unaware.
He called the measure a hunab,
which in the Aztec language means "unified measure", and the hunab is
exactly eight to seven of the Aztec betan, which
means "yard".
[* http://www.secretacademy.com/pages/hughharleston.htm]
Table of ancient measurement units and origins (compiled by
Jim Allen*)
1 English inch = 25.399772mm taken as 25.4mm
1 English inch = 1/500,000 part of Earth's polar diameter
half inch = 1,000,000,000 part of Earth's polar diameter
1 palm = 3 inches
1 pound weight was originally the weight of a cube of 3 x 3 x 3
inches filled with water
a cubic foot originally weighed 64lbs and contained 8 gallons
a modern cubic foot weighs 62.137lbs and contains 6.2 gallons
Foot
 English 12.0" (304.8mm) derived from polar diameter
 Saxon 13.2" (335.3mm) 20 Sumerian shusi
 Roman (1) 13.18" (335.0mm) similar to Saxon foot
 Roman (2) 11.65" (295.9mm) 24/25ths of
the Greek foot
 Paris (1) 12.785" (324.74mm) 1/6th of toise diameter of
wheel
 Paris (2) 12.789" (324.84mm) diameter of wheel
 Russian 14.0" (355.6mm) diameter of wheel
 Greek 12.136" (308.3mm) Greece latitude
 Babylon 12.126" (308.0mm) Babylon latitude and Phoenicia
 Egypt (1) 12.118" (307.8mm) Egypt latitude
 Egypt (2) 11.81" (300.0mm) circumference as pi 3141592653
 Remen 14.58" (370.3mm) mean of latitudes
Cubit
 Egyptian Royal (1) 20.62" (523.7mm) circumference of earth
in atur
 Egyptian Royal (2) 20.6264" (523.9mm) diameter of earth in
atur
 Egyptian Royal (3) 20.669" (525.0mm) circumference as pi
3141592653
 EgyptianRoyal (4) 20.72" (526.3mm) circumference as
40,000,000mtrs
 Sumerian 19.8" (502.9mm) 24/25ths of
Egyptian Royal cubit
 Greek 18.205" (462.4mm) Greece latitude
 Babylon 18.1889" (462.0mm) Babylon latitude and Phoenicia
 Egypt Geographic(1) 18.177" (461.7mm) Egypt latitude
 Egypt Geographic(2) 17.716" (450.0mm) circumference as pi
3141592653
 Sacred Cubit = 25 inches
 Great Cubit = 30 inches = sacred cubit of 25" plus a hand of
5"
Megalithic Yard
 Britain 2.72ft 32.64" (829.0mm) year of 365¼ days
 Sumeria 2.750ft 33.0" (838.2mm) year of 360 days
 India 2.750ft 33.0" (838.2mm) year of 360 days
 Peru 2.750ft 33.0" (838.2mm) year of 360 days
 Statute Mile 5280ft or 8 furlongs of 240 Sumerian yards
Geographic Mile

6076.8884ft mean of meridians latitude

6056.97ft Egypt middle latitude

6062.99ft Babylon latitude

6068.46ft Greece latitude

6046.3418ft equatorial latitude

6087.268ft equatorial longitude

6107.7755ft polar latitude

Nautical mile 6080.00ft Admiralty sea mile
1 Sumerian shusi = 0.66"
10 Sumerian Shusi = 6.6" = 1 hand
12 Sumerian Shusi = 7.2" = 1 link
20 Sumerian shusi = 13.2" = 1 foot
30 Sumerian Shusi = 19.8" = 1 cubit
50 Sumerian Shusi = 33.0" = 1 Sumerian yard
100 Sumerian Shusi = 66.0" = 1 double Sumerian yard
1 acre = 600 x 60 Sumerian feet = 36,000 sq Sumerian feet
1 acre = 660 x 66 English feet = 43,560 sq English feet
1 pole = 15 Sumerian feet
1 pole = 16.5 English feet
1 chain = 20 Sumerian feet
1 chain = 22 English feet
1 furlong = 600 Sumerian feet
1 furlong = 660 English feet
1 Royal cubit of 21 inches rolls out a double Sumerian yard of
66" or 2 Sumerian yards
1 metre = 1/10,000,000 part of the Earth's quadrant circumference
1 litre = a cube of 100mm x 100mm x 100mm
1 kilogram = the weight of a cube of 100mm x 100mm x 100mm filled
with water
[* Source: Historic Atlantis in Bolivia]
Related links: Measurements
and Units
Archaeoastronomy Articles on our website:
HOT
The Digital
Orrery
The digital orrery created by Piotr Kaczmarek.
It is too detailed to be embedded in
this article, so click on the screen capture below
to load it in a
new window.
This is one of the best solar system simulators we know!
Within the application you can view the solar system according
to the Copernican (suncentered) or Tychonian (earthcentered)
model. You can rotate the system by clicking and dragging on the
outer ring, or let it move automatically by adjusting a slider in
the top left.
HOT
The Photographer's
Ephemeris
The Photographer’s Ephemeris (TPE) is a free
application for Mac/Windows/Linux designed for landscape
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It shows you the exact direction of
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twilight, or alternatively when the moon is in a particular place
or a particular phase. Click on the logo to learn more and
download this free program.
stephentrainor.com/tools
See screenshots below (click to
enlarge):
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