Moving Stones with Simple Tools
by Robert Rossi
When we think of how the huge rectangular stones have been moved
we think of a gang of people in some way moving the stones as they
are, in the shape they are.
Building the Great Pyramid
When in fact by my thinking the stone's shape had to have been
augmented to roll the stones up a ramp by the use of ropes. (If
ropes were used). Not having been to the stone's site to inspect
them and the surrounding land, one can only guesstimate at their
having been moved a certain way.
Firstly, the ramp itself is probably build out of stone(?) capable
of taking the weight of the megaliths moving upward along it. From
the top of the ramp to the bottom, the multitude of ropes are laid
in channels in and along the ramp (submerged somewhat) so that the
stones are not sitting on the ropes themselves (to protect the ropes
from being crushed).
Then a structure is built atop the stone the same shape as the
original stone so that the height of the stone and its structure are
now twice the height of the original stone. (As if one rectangular
stone were sitting atop another rectangular stone of the same size,
width and height - or higher).
Imagine trying to roll a large refrigerator up a hill. You cannot
slide it up the hill because it is too heavy. So you roll it one
quarter revolution at a time until you get it to move along. But it
is too heavy to roll a rectangular refrigerator of that size. So,
you put another refrigerator on top of the first one, secure it to
the one below as best you can, and then merely topple the structure
over, up the hill, by pushing on the top of the structure. Once you
have toppled the refrigerator over, repeat the process of putting
one refrigerator atop the other and topple it again. In doing so you
are moving the refrigerator up hill, one quarter turn at a time.
However, this is only one aspect of the stone's being moved -
moving the stones into position approaching the ramp may be another
crew's problem. One would have to be on site to determine this
One important factor in the stone theories on their movement is
that someone did in fact move those stones. I keep this fact as 65
per cent of the solution as to how they were moved. The stones
weren't lifted, nor were they slid (my personal deduction, however
shimming would be excepted - that is to move one side forward then
the other - very difficult up a ramp), which leaves the task of
rolling. To make something roll that is square, is to round the
square. Yet this too is not easy because of the massive weight of
the stones. Therefore the weight of the stone itself has to be
reduced. This can be implemented by changing the height/width ratio
- by building the height of the stone with some structure and
leaving the width intact. A moving automobile easily rolls over in a
turn because it is top heavy, etc. The trick is to build the upper
part of the structure to a maximum strength and weight, that will
cause the rolling of both units to work as one (the refrigerator
atop another refrigerator practice). The way to achieve this with
maximum forward movement is to have the stone roll and fall onto a
ramp twice the angle of the intended ramp (If the intended ramp is
at 18 degrees throughout its length, fill in a ramp forward of the
stone at 30 degrees to bring the stone to a rest with less downward
distance and less pull of gravity), then dig out the greater ramp to
have the stone rest on the then intended ramp. (Letting the stone
roll and fall at a 90 degree angle would possibly break the stone).
In the introduction to "Mystic Places - Baalbek", the following is
written: "the Romans constructed a monumental ensemble of three
temples, three courtyards, and an enclosing wall built of some of
the most gigantic stones ever crafted by man. Some tourists believe
that the construction can only be attributed to extra-terrestrial
artwork". This indicates the Romans built the wall and therefore
"extra-terrestrials is out of the question - also meaning that
strong metals was used in the moving of the stones. If the
Phoenicians were the builders or someone before them the process
would have been somewhat different regarding implements used.
again, did the Romans need big stones to frighten hostile oncomers?
For this, it is not easy to make a proper assessment of the stones
without being there and seeing all aspects of the area.
It should be kept in mind that the stones were being moved many
times before they were actually put into place - the stones had to
be moved out of the quarry and be rolled to work on other sides. So,
these workers may have had the movement of these stones down path
before they attempted to use them in the building of the wall. In
seeing the "Pregnant woman stone" one sees the process of digging
below the stone to cause some movement of the stone. Perhaps the
builders were moving the stones end over end to gain a greater
distance with each rotation - but again, taking the chance that the
stone may break from such an high fall.
There are tricks to moving an 800 ton stone. Reduce the weight of
the stone and expand the strength of the timber and ropes used. How
can one reduce the weight of the stone? In reality, the stone's mean
weight matters only if one lifts the stone or tries to drag it. When
rolling the stone, the actual weight of stone one has to deal with
is reduced by at least 2/3 or more. By tying three timbers together
the strength of the timbers being used is tripled. Finally, counter
weights are employed to keep a constant pressure on the stone in the
direction to which the stone is to be moved, to add to the force
applied by labor. It may be better to build the timber upward on top
of the stone, which would give more ways to fasten the timber to the
backside of the stone and onto the sides as shown in the schematics.
In this schematic it shows two distinct directions of pull - by
physical labor and by counter weights. The counter weights should be
stones the maximum allowed by the strength of the rope used.
The labor force should have loops in the rope with which to pull
the stone - they should also have a means of counter-force at their
feet (such as a baseball pitcher has a counter-force (a wood block)
at his foot on the mound when he winds up to throw), therefore
increasing the pull-force/push-force of each laborer.
Rossi d'Providence Dec. 2006