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Pyramid Building:
More Theories

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Jean-Pierre Houdin Theory

3D Unveils the Mystery of the Great Pyramid

The secret of the construction of the pyramid of Khufu in Egypt has always held people in fascination. Numerous theories have been put forward but none has yet stood up to analysis. Eight years ago, the architect Jean-Pierre Houdin had a flash of intuition and developed a revolutionary theory. Considering Khufu' monumental undertaking as the first industrial construction project in history, he turned to Dassault Systčmes technology to test his hypotheses and feed his thought processes. So it was that he joined the 'Passion for Innovation' programme. Having demonstrated the validity of the theory with the aid of their scientific 3D solutions, Dassault Systčmes invite you to enjoy an extraordinary journey through time and space. Relive the Great Pyramid construction project in real-time 3D!

For full details visit http://www.3ds.com/introduction/revealed/


PS

New Mysteries Within the Great Pyramid
Is There a Lost Spiral Tunnel Inside?

4 - 27 - 2009 Over the last two decades French engineer Jean-Pierre Houdin has done practically nothing else but eat, sleep and work on developing computer graphics in his attempt to solve the mystery of how the Great Pyramid was built. His final results contain a number of ingenius construction solutions that no one else has thought of before. But serious questions remain about his design interpretations. Has Houdin used the right facts to come up with inaccurate conclusions?

The French engineer visualizes that the Giza monument was built in three major stages:

In stage one, a straight ramp was slowly constructed, up which the ancient laborers dragged over a million and a half blocks that went into the Pyramid as far as the one-third level of the King’s Chamber. Also at this time, as the structure slowly rose, the beginning of an internal spiral ramp was begun, twisting around just inside the outer edge of the core masonry.

In stage two, the peculiar design of the Grand Gallery, Houdin believes, was utilized for operating a series of counterweights and control mechanisms to help move the huge granite blocks—some weighing over seventy tons each—that were positioned into the ceiling and relieving chambers above the King’s Chamber.

Finally, in stage three, the blocks that had been employed to build the outside straight ramp were now taken away one by one and moved up through the internal spiral ramp. These blocks, probably over a million in number, were used to construct the upper two-thirds of the Pyramid. As the monument continued to rise skyward, the inside spiral ramp also continued to lengthen all the way to the apex. By the time of the Pyramid’s completion, the outer straight ramp was completely dismantled and removed, while the inside spiral ramp—its purpose now finished— was sealed shut so that no evidence of its existence was visible from the outside. And, Houdin is convinced, it remains there hidden to this day, waiting to be rediscovered.

As impressive as this scenario may be, it has a few fundamental flaws. Let us examine it more closely, stage by stage.

In the first portion of the Pyramid’s building process, Houdin relies on the conservative historians’ old standby, the straight ramp, to explain how the stone blocks were moved and placed into the monument. Other engineers have long discounted the use of such a ramp, because even at a modest gradient of seven percent, such an incline would have put too much strain on the existing labor force in hauling multi-ton loads uphill on a continuous basis over a long period of time.

Then there was the added problem that, as the ramp extended farther out as the Pyramid got higher, the ramp width at the top would have gotten increasingly narrower, leaving less and less room for the hundreds of haulers to be able to adequately maneuver their individual stones. Even with Houndin’s dependence on such a ramp for only building up to the one-third level, nevertheless the major problems of utilizing such an incline would still have become very apparent.

The engineer’s solution as to what happened to the straight ramp—that its constituent blocks eventually became incorporated into the Pyramid itself—is a clever idea, and it helps to solve a major mystery for which conservative Egyptologists have had no answer. If a straight ramp was utilized, the experts have never found any trace of it on the Giza plateau. With Houdin’s theory, at least, he proposes one possible solution as to what may have happened to it.

But there is, in fact, an even simpler answer that also fits the facts, which is this—there never was a straight ramp to begin with. If no evidence of a ramp was ever detected, it is because no such ramp was ever employed in the building of the Great Pyramid.

In the second stage of construction, Houdin tries to explain that the reason for the unique design of the Grand Gallery was because its only purpose was to aid in moving and raising the huge granite blocks that were placed above the King’s Chamber.

The shortcoming here with this explanation is that, as a typical engineer, Houdin approaches the design features of the Great Pyramid from a purely functional viewpoint. Houdin himself admits that he has no background in ancient Egyptian history, art, religion or mythology. His very first visit to the Pyramid did not take place until long after he completed his theories. As a result, a whole dimension of essential architectural symbolism based on the complexities of Egyptian belief systems is missing from his consideration and computation. In reality, there are any number of other purposes to the design features of the Grand Gallery that have nothing to do with functionality from an exclusively engineering perspective.

What aspect of modern Egyptology Houdin unfortunately does embrace is the prevailing conservative belief that the Pyramid was nothing more than a royal tomb. Any alternative concepts—for example, that the monument was instead used for other more religious purposes—are not even considered, and other more expansive design possibilities are ignored.

As for the idea of using the Grand Gallery for a counterweight mechanism, there is one basic problem that emerges—and one that once again conservative historians have relied on but for which there is no proof. In Houdin’s own video graphics of the supposed counterweight system, we are shown hundreds of virtual laborers grappling with huge virtual ropes that are pictured as being a yard or two in diameter and extending hundreds of feet in length. From an engineering standpoint, this would have been the only type of rope that could have had the capacity of handling the tremendous weights of the granite blocks, without stretching, unraveling and breaking.

However, from an archaeological perspective we have to ask, where would all this rope have come from? When diggers opened the boat pit discovered on the south side of the Great Pyramid, they found preserved within a few samples of much smaller rope remains four thousand years old that had been used for Khufu’s solar boat rigging. But nothing like the proposed super-ropes for hauling large stone blocks have ever been found, and for good reason. The land of the Nile has never had an abundant supply of fibrous plant material to manufacture huge ropes on a scale that would have been necessary for moving massive numbers of stone blocks, especially in the exertion of pulling large weights up an incline. In the last analysis, Houdin’s virtual mega-ropes exist only in cyberspace, but never were they present in the past real world of the ancient Egyptians.

Now we come to the most intriguing part of Houdin’s construction theory that is the crownpiece of his third stage of building—the existence of an internal spiral ramp up through the entire length of the inside of the Pyramid monument. He pictures it as a very long corridor that when completed was perhaps a mile in length. It snaked its way upward at a seven percent gradient, making as many as fourteen turns around the circumference, just inside the first layers of core masonry. According to Houdin’s proposed reconstruction, the corridor’s floor would have to have been wide enough to accommodate the width of the stone blocks being moved, as well as the workers handling them. The ceiling of the ramp corridor was most likely corbelled, which means the walls were inclined inward and high.

But here again we are confronted with several difficulties in this interpretation. First of all, a ramp by any other name is still a ramp. A seven percent gradient, and extending a mile long, would impose nearly impossible feats of strength and endurance on the part of the stone haulers. Add to this the cramped quarters of surrounding walls on either side through which to try to maneuver large blocks using hundreds of men. Then envision this activity going on in an enclosed atmosphere with hardly any light and little air, and the working conditions would have worsened even more, to the point of being impractical.

A third obstacle becomes apparent when we consider how to turn the blocks around the corner at the end of each incline and into the beginning of the next incline going up. Houdin tries to get around this problem by proposing that, at each corner turn, the corridor opened to an outside ledge where the laborers— using a system of wooden levers and supports—turned the stones ninety degrees before taking them back inside through the next corridor length. However, no evidence for any such openings exist in the present masonry. One possibility was thought to be what is called the Niche, which can be seen today about two-thirds of the way up the Pyramid’s northeast corner. But a closer inspection of the Niche by several observers produced no results of any opening.

There would also have been the problem, toward the end of the corridor circuit near the apex of the Pyramid, where the ramp gradient would have had to have been more sharply inclined in order to avoid the corridor height from the turn below. Calculations show that, at this point, the incline would have been far too steep for any stones to even be budged out of place.

While it would not have worked as a ramp, nevertheless there is evidence that Houdin’s proposed spiral corridor may actually exist. In 1986, a French team of experts conducted a microgravimetric survey of the Great Pyramid, which was much like taking an x-ray of the inside of the monument. Examining the structure from above, Houdin’s compatriots detected a definite internal spiral design, looking exactly like an empty tunnel twisting around near the edge of the exterior.

As a possible corroboration, modern-day digital images show the faint outline of gradual spiral turns seen across the face of the Pyramid when the core masonry is observed in certain angles of light.

There are also reports of animals—indigenous cats, dogs and foxes—which occasionally suddenly appear out of gaps among the blocks high up on the monument’s outer surface. These creatures are not observed climbing up the exterior beforehand, so they must have reached these heights by an unknown means from somewhere inside.

What we can conclude from all this is that, yes, there exists a forgotten spiral tunnel within the Pyramid, but no, it was not used as a ramp as Houdin suggests. Significantly, in a number of ancient Egyptian temples—such as at Edfu and Dendera—there are hidden spiral staircases that were utilized by the officiating priests and priestesses as procession ways. During certain rituals and ceremonies such features served the purpose of secretly interconnecting several sacred chambers within the sanctuary, located on different levels.

Similarly, especially if we regard the Great Pyramid as also once having been a form of temple, a long spiral corridor that traversed the entire length of the monument very likely connected its many interior chambers. The high priests, priestesses and initiates—who performed their special transformational processes within the Pyramid—secretly passed through this lost corridor as part of their religious functions over many ages of time. 

Will this forgotten tunnel be opened again one day soon? Where will it lead and what secrets could it reveal?

Copyright 2009. Joseph Robert Jochmans. All Rights Reserved.
Website at: www.forgottenagesresearch.com 


Hany Halim - The Broken Vase Theory

“Intellectual Property Right” By the Egyptian Engineer/Tour guide/ HANY HALIM patented in Egypt in 2002

IT has always puzzled me to see the amazing joints between the stones of the pyramids, especially those used for the outer cladding. Close inspection reveals that you cannot insert a pin or a sharp razor blade in between the stones and I believe that they were probably meant to be water-tight in order to prevent water Leakage into the building.

They adhere perfectly to each other with no cement at all The question that nagged me was how the Ancient Egyptians managed to do that with such great precision?

NOT only this but also they had to be able to put ONE STONE EVERY TWO MINUTES in its place continuously for 25 years working 10 hours a day (see Calculations ).

HOW TO ACHIEVE this HIGH SPEED OF WORK TOGETHER WITH THIS VERY HIGH PRECISSION??!!

THIS IS THE DIFFICULT QUSTION THAT PUZZELED THE MINDS of the world for a long time with no logical, or generally accepted answer.

WELL now Let’s notice what happens if we break a vase into pieces then try to fix it by putting the pieces back and gluing them.
If we do a good job, it will be difficult to tell where the cracks of the joints are, we’ll probably see a hair-line crack where we can’t insert a pin or a sharp razor blade. Isn’t this exactly the same case as the cladding stones used in covering the pyramids? If we follow the same technique to build the pyramids We would Break the quarry into pieces, move it to the construction site and put the pieces back next to each other as they were in the quarry, achieving both the high speed and great accuracy.

SEE IT CAN Really WORK...
I found many proofs and evidence that support my Theory and it was generally accepted by all those who read or new about it, I had no disagreement at all in the last 5 years.

For full details visit http://www.hanyra.com/index_files/page0008.htm 


Steven Martin's Theory

An alternate theory that is simple and practical - submitted by our visitor Steven Martin (sketches © Steven Martin)

Note: Click on each image to enlarge

 


Hypothesis of Construction of the Pyramids
of the Valley of Giza

by Carlos Eduardo Rodríguez Varona

The following hypothesis tries to demonstrate the probable technology (skill) used for the construction, specifically the elevation (increase) and location to certain height, of the constructive elements that compose the Egyptian pyramids of Gizeh's valley, in specific Keops's pyramid. There is exposed a theory that uses two types of ramps: those of static character, placed inside the body of the pyramid, constructed with the body of this one; and smaller others of dynamic character, located on the steps of the levels, of structure flexible and changeable, easy to move and maneuver with regard to the previous ones. Presenting both an angle of inclination almost void in the slope. 

Read the entire article >>



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