The shallow etchings were made well over 2,000 years ago by Indians
who cleared the stony surface, exposing the whitish soil underneath.
Scientists continue to debate their purpose, offering such theories
as a calendar, a map of underground water supplies, ancient
"message in the bottle" for the future generations (Picture
1)- even landing
strips for space aliens.
Are the Nazca-Lines a message similar
to the message attached to the Pioneer 10 spacecraft?
As the first two spacecraft to leave our solar system, Pioneer 10
carry a graphic message in the form of a 6- by 9-inch gold
plaque bolted to the spacecraft's main frame.
On the plaque a man and woman stand before an outline
of the spacecraft. The man's hand is raised in a gesture of
good will. The physical makeup of the man and woman were
determined from results of a computerized analysis of the
average person in our civilization.
The key to translating the plaque lies in understanding the
breakdown of the most common element in the universe -
hydrogen. This element is illustrated in the left-hand
corner of the plaque in schematic form showing the hyperfine
transition of neutral atomic hydrogen. Anyone from a
scientifically educated civilization having enough knowledge
of hydrogen would be able to translate the message. The
plaque was designed by Dr. Carl Sagan and Dr. Frank Drake
and drawn by Linda Salzman Sagan.
Theories About The Nazca Lines
Here are theories proposed by various writers and scientists.
Astronomical Mayan influence in Nazca?
Gilbert de Jong
noticed that sites of Izapa
(14.8 N) and Nasca (Cahuachi) 14.8 S might be related and exhibit Mayan
Map of Nasca region. Click to enlarge.
In fact there is an account of the landing of strange
men, possibly priests (because there were no women among them so
they didn't plan to establish themselves), near Puerto Viejo
(Ecuador). According to this legend these strangers/giants founded a site that, because
of the cisterns, matches the places of the Ica-Nasca region. (see photo)
Cistern photo. Copyrightby Gilbert de Jong.
Dr. Malmstrom, the Mayan astronomers traveled north to
find the place 'where the sun stood stil' (Chalchihuites or Alta Vista, near
Tropic of Cancer, founded about 500 AD).
Would it be a strange thing to
assume they also traveled south?
Perhaps in earlier times...
If they did, they first would have noticed the equator and find that the
the sun traveled in both directions the same amount of days. When they
realized this, they must have concluded that there must be a place, like Izapa, where the calendar of 260 days could also be used.
So the Maya astronomers traveled to the south and found a place 14.8° S: Cahuachi/Nasca.
This place worked out to be an excellent (mirror) place of Izapa.
Both Gerald Hawkins, an astronomer, and Maria Reiche
were not aware of this strange 14.8° coincidence.
The simple truth might be
that Mayan astronomers 'created' Nasca.
August 13 (1359 BC) is a date that
marked the sacred Mayan calendar.
Could it be so that, when they discovered
that Nasca was an excellent place to take long time measures, they
discovered the secret of the Venus risings and settings? Could it be so that
they could 'Turn back time' and find the position of planets and stars
around 1,359 BC? Is that what the Nasca lines were about?
The three Nasca
circles (GGF drawing) measured by Gilbert de Jong several years ago might refer to a sacred date.
Wouldn't it be great? Mayans? This might be the answer on what Nasca really
is: astronomical Mayan influence.
Here is a story from the book of chronicler and Inca Garcilaso
de La Vega.
Also skeletons of whales of been found near Nasca. How things can get
mixed up in time...
Photographs of the 'giant' skulls in the Ica museum.
Copyright by Gilbert de Jong.
Sodomite Flesh Eating Giants in Peru by Garcilaso de la Vega -
From the "Royal Commentaties of the Incas", volume I, chapter
BEFORE leaving this region, we should mention a very
remarkable story which the natives have received as a tradition
handed down by their ancestors for many centuries. It refers to some
giants who they say arrived in their country from over the sea and
landed at the point now called Santa Elena, a name given to it
because it was first seen by Spaniards on this saint's day. As Pedro
de Cieza de León is the Spanish historian who speaks of these giants
at greatest length, having received his version in the very province
which the giants visited, it seemed best I should follow his account
word for word, for although Padre J. Acosta and the accountant
general Agustín de Zárate say the same, their version is very brief.
Pedro de Cieza's fuller account in his ch. Iii is as follows:
"As there is in Peru a story of some giants who landed
on the coast at the point of Santa Elena, in the vicinity of the
city of Puerto Viejo, I have resolved to mention what I was told
about them, as I understood it, without taking into account the
opinions of the common people and their various anecdotes, for they
usually magnify events larger than life. The natives, repeating a
story received from their forefathers from very remote times, say
that there came from across the sea on reed rafts that were as large
as big ships some men that were so big that an ordinary man of good
size scarcely reached up to knees: their members were in proportion
to the size of their bodies, and it a monstrous thing to see their
enormous heads and their hair hanging dawn about their shoulders.
Their eyes were as large as small plates. They say they had no
beards and that some of them were clad in the skins of animals, and
others only in the dress nature gave them. There were no women with
them. On reaching this point, they set up their camp like a village
(and even in these times there is a memory of the site of their
houses). As they found no supply of water they remedied the lack by
making some very deep wells, a labor certainly worthy of record,
being undertaken by such strong men as these must have been, to
judge by their size. They dug these wells in the living rock until
they came to the water, and afterwards they built the wells in stone
from the water line upwards so that they would last for ages. In
these wells the water is excellent and it is always so cold that it
is very pleasant to drink.
"When these great men or giants had thus made their
settlement and dug these wells or cisterns, they destroyed and ate
all the supplies they could find in the neighborhood. It is said
that one of them ate more than fifty of the natives of the land; and
as the supply of food was not sufficient for them to maintain
themselves, they caught much fish with nets and gear that they had.
They lived in continuous hostility with the natives, because they
slew the latter's women in order to have them, and they also slew
the men for other reasons. But the Indians were not numerous enough
to kill these newcomers who occupied their land and lorded it over
them; and although they held great discussions about this, they
never dared attack them.
"After some years the giants were still in this region,
and as they had no women of their own and the Indian women of the
neighborhood were too small for them, or else because the vice was
habitual to them and inspired by the demon, they practised the
unspeakable and horrible sin of sodomy, committing it openly and in
public without fear of God or personal shame. The natives say that
our Lord God, unwilling to conceal so wicked a sin, sent them a
punishment suited to the beastliness of the crime, and when all the
giants were together engaged in this accursed practice there came a
fearful fire from heaven to the accompaniment of a great noise, in
the midst of which a shining angel appeared holding a sharp, bright
sword with which he slew them all at a single stroke, and the fire
consumed them leaving only a few bones and skulls, which God allowed
to remain unconsumed as a token of the punishment. This is the
account they give of the giants, and we believe that it happened,
for it is said that very large bones have been found and still are
found thereabouts and I have heard Spaniards say they have seen
pieces of teeth which they thought must have weighed half a pound
when whole, and who had also seen a piece of a shin-bone of
wonderful size, all of which bears witness to the truth of the
incident. In addition to this one can see the places where the sites
of their villages were, and also the wells or cisterns they made. I
cannot state whence or how these giants came there.
"In the present year of 1550 when in the city of Lima,
I heard that when his excellency Don Antonio de Mendoza was viceroy
and governor of New Spain, certain bones of men as big as these
giants, and even bigger, were found there. I have heard too that in
an ancient sepulcher in the city of Mexico or somewhere else in that
kingdom certain bones of giants have been found. Since so many
people saw them and attest having done so, it can therefore be
credited that such giants did exist and indeed they may all have
been of the same race.
"At this point of Santa Elena, which is as I have said
on the coast of Peru and in the district of the city of Puerto
Viejo, there is a remarkable phenomenon: the existence of certain
wells or seams of pitch of such excellent quality that it would be
possible to tar all the ships one wished with it, since it flows
from the earth. This pitch must be from some seam passing through
that place: it comes out very hot,etc.
"Thus far Pedro de Cieza, whose history we have
followed to show the Indian tradition about the giants, and the well
of pitch at the same place, for it too is remarkable."
Links related to this segment:
Other Theories About The Nazca Lines
Erich von Däniken - Cargo-Cult
Erich von Däniken's theory is the most famous approach to solve
the mystery of Nazca. He had the idea that long time ago visitors
from other stars visited the earth and naturally Nazca. At this
place they landed, during the landing stones was blown away by the
power of rocket propulsion. By approaching more the power was
increasing and the cleaned band broader. In this way the first
trapezes emerged. Later the Aliens disappeared and left confused
people. Like in the modern cargo cults they tried to call the Gods
back by drawing lines, figures and trapezes. Never Däniken said the
formations was made by Aliens. He discovered the GGF/Mandala/Zodiac
and the mirror - Formation and compares them with modern VASIS or
PAPI-Signs. Visit his website.
Alan F. Alford - Negroid Slaves
means the Nazca-Lines was made by Negroid Slaves of the Tihuanaco
Culture. After a revolution the Negroid population destroyed some
figure, this is the explanation for overdrawn zigzag-formations.
Later this people went in northern direction and founded Chavin and
the Olmec culture.
Robert Bast - A memory of the Deluge
Robert Bast from Australia has a very interesting theory. All
these animal, plant and human-shaped figures are lying together on
the ground. So it could be a memorial place of the big flood. Many
cultures of our world know deluge-myths, you can find a couple of
them at his Side. Or visit directly the URL of his Nazca-Theory.
Gilbert de Jong - A nazcan Zodiac
Gilbert de Jong was himself in Nazca and measured the GGF by GPS.
He obtained a length of the square side of about 54,7 Meter. In the
formation he recognized a Zodiac.
Nazca GGF photo. Click to enlarge.
Copyright by Gilbert de Jong
Nazca GGF drawing. Click to enlarge.
Copyright by Gilbert de Jong
Nazca GGF drawing with details. Click to enlarge.
Copyright by Gilbert de Jong
More about at his theory you can
Robin Edgar - Solar Eclipses
Robin Edgar from Canada proposes that the Nazca-Figures were
inspired by, and intended to be seen by, the (so-called) "Eye
of God" that is manifested during total solar eclipses. An
extraordinary series of solar eclipses coincided with the
construction of the Nasca lines. Some Lines are aligned with the
winter solstice, a less spectacular but more regular,
"death" and "rebirth" of the Sun God.
Maria Reiche - Astronomical Theory
Maria Reiche, the most famous Nazca-Researcher, prefer the
astronomical theory. Lines should show in direction of the rising of
important stars and planetary events like sun solstices. Formations
like the spider and the monkey could show star constellations like
Orion and Ursa Mayor.
The big problem of all astronomical theories is the unknowing of the
age. The direction of stars is changing within centuries because the
phenomena of precession.
Reiche has led a
determined effort to discredit the von Daniken theory of
extraterrestrials. The strategy of this attack has been to argue
that the Nazca Indians constructed the Lines relatively recently -
some time between 300 BC and AD 800. In support of this possibility,
some scientists have put forward ingenious ideas on how the
geoglyphs could theoretically have been designed from the ground.
The more important evidence, however, is that which attempts to link
the Lines definitively to the Nazcan culture. Here, neither of the
two key pieces of evidence survive close scrutiny.
The first piece of evidence is a series of radiocarbon dates, based
on ceramic and wood remains which were left at the Lines by the
Nazcan people. It is claimed that this proves that the Nazcans
constructed the Lines. On the contrary, the dating of these
materials tells us only that the Nazcans lived in the area of the
Lines. Since the Lines themselves cannot be radiocarbon dated, the
possibility remains that they already existed when the Nazcan
The second piece of evidence is the alleged resemblance of the Nazca
geoglyphs to certain features found on Nazcan pottery. This is an
important issue because it potentially offers proof that the Nazcans
had either designed the images or at least viewed them from the air.
Maria has her theories but no conclusive proof as to their
In 1968, a study by the National Geographic Society determined
that, whilst some of the Nazca lines did point to the positions of
the Sun, Moon and certain stars two thousand years ago, it was no
more than could be expected by mere chance. In 1973, Dr Gerald
Hawkins studied 186 lines with a computer programme and found that
only 20 per cent had any astronomical orientation - again no more
than by pure chance. In 1982, Anthony Aveni obtained similar
results, whilst in 1980, Georg Petersen pointed out that Reiche's
theory did not explain the different lengths and widths of the
lines. More recently, Johan Reinhard has noted that the surrounding
mountains provided a ready-made and much more effective mechanism
for the Nazcans to use as a solar calendar; the lines would thus
have been quite superfluous to them. In addition to this avalanche
of scientific opinion, we should also note that Reiche, like von
Daniken, has failed to explain the significance of the animal
Maria Reiche, the German mathematician and archaeologist most
famous for her research into the enigmatic figures of Nazca, died in
1998 at the age of 95. She is buried in the arid valley she loved so
Simone Waisbard - Astronomical Calendar
Simone Waisbard writes that the drawing of Nazca are a giant
astronomical calendar. Further the Nazca-line-system was used to
measure the precipitation value. Figures, especially seabirds, have
a connection to the meteorological prophecy system of the Nazca-Culture.
Her ideas for the trapezoid formations: places for holy animals
before sacrifice them, or field claims connected with filter
galleries, observatories or places for ritual ceremonies of the
Professor Gerald Hawkins - No astronomical
Hawkins and his group went to Nazca to prove the astronomical
Theory of Maria Reiche. The made new and precise survey and analyzed
the course of important stars by using new computer software. This
Software included the star positions of the last 6900 years. After
weeks of work they had very disappointed to say: We didn't find any
Jim Woodmann - The Balloon Theory
Jim Woodmann made a experiment in Thor Heyerdahl's way. He let
make a balloon of fine Peruvian cotton, and a basket made by Aymara-Indians.
This flying object was called condor. Hot air from a fire was
brought into the balloon, and really, the balloon flied away after
the two pilots was escaped. So Woodmann had a new theory, they used
black balloons to bury their kings.
Prof. Anthony Aveni - Water-Cult
Anthony Aveni isn't a friend of the astronomical theory of Maria
Reiche. He compares the Nazca-lines with the ceque-lines in Cuzco.
Those lines will brought in connection with calendar, water and
mountain deities. So he's the idea there's a connection between the
Nazca-lines and the subterranean canalization system. In this way
the Nazca-Indians celebrated a water-cult. Figures and lines was
used for ceremonial dances.
Michael Coe - Ceremonial Places
Michael Coe believes the Lines are sacred paths to walk by
specific rites. But primary the lines was a offering for elders,
heaven- and mountain-deities who spent water for fields.
Siegfried Waxmann - Culture atlas
Siegfried Waxmann recognized a culture atlas of the human history
in the Nazca-line-system.
Professor Frederico Kauffmann-Doig - magic lines
The famous Archaeologist has the theory, that the lines of Nazca
are magic lines which origin from the cat cult in Chavin de Huantar.
Georg A. von Breunig - Sport stadion
Breunig has the idea that Nazca was used for sprinting to honor
especial gods or ritual competitions. This theory was supported by
the famous professor Hoimar von Ditfurth.
Markus Reindel / David Johnson - Water Cult and
David Johnson believes that the Nazca-Figures are markers for
subteran waterflow. Trapezoides show the broadness of the
waterstream, zigzaglines show where they end, lines show into
direction of the puquitos. Reindel sympatizes with Johnsons Theory,
additionally he explain the nature of the figures by rod-dowsing (to
find the subterran water) and shamanstic flights (to overview the
Wolf-Galicki - Signals from Extraterrestrial
The Canadian Galicki recognize in the Nazca-System doubtless
signals of a extraterrestrial race. Only using this point of view
the big planing and work performance is plausible.
Hermann E. Bossi - The Nazca-Code
Bossi's theory bases on a formation called the GGF, Mandala or
Zodiac that was discovered by Erich von Däniken 1995. This
formation include a plenty of different combination possibilities
and include information about the Star HD 42807 at different times
and it's planet. Other formations like the monkey seems to be of
this code too. The same code is to find in other places like
Stonehenge, Avebury and Borobudur, but also by Crop Circles.
The Code of Carl Munck: The Ancient Geomatria of Numbers
The ancient sites around the world are very precisely positioned
on a global coordinate system in relation to the position of the
Great Pyramid at Giza. The positions of the sites are given in the
geometry of their construction. A very ancient system of numbers was
used in the system, which we will call "Gematria."
Gematrian" numbers are found in ancient myths and religions,
including the Bible. Gematrian numbers were used in systems of
weights and measures by ancient peoples, including the Greeks, the
Egyptians, the Persians, the Babylonians and the Romans.
The Code system uses mathematical constants, such as pi and the
radian. The system also uses conventions that are still in use, such
as the 360 degree circle, 60 minute degree, 60 second minute, the
base-ten numbering system, the 12-inch foot, and the 5280-foot mile.
The ancient Mayans used Gematrian numbers in their very accurate
The Nazca Line ground markings "locate themselves" on The
Code Matrix System.
For more detailes visit Carl Munck's website Nazca
Lines and Archaeocryptography.
Professor Helmut Tributsch - Fata Morgana
Tributsch has the idea that important cult places like
Stonehenge, the Pyramids and naturally Nazca were built on places
where often the Fata Morgana - Phenomena occurs. In this way People
could see the Fata Morgana of the Nazca-Lines.
Jiri Mruzek - The Seal of Atlantis
Jiri Murzek has another solution to Nazca Lines, and Figures. It
is a very complete solution of the monkey's
figure. It involves geometrical code, which speaks of specific
aspects of analytical geometry. This code coincides with the code of
prehistorical La Marche, France.
John D. Miller - 177 Feet
John D. Miller analyzes different buildings worldwide. So he
found in ancient buildings and old cathedrals often the value of 177
Feet. His theories are based on several holy numbers and units, so
he believes that there is a deeper importance within.
Thomas Wick - A plan of a Cathedral
He's a private researcher of ancient mysteries. When he saw the
figure of the GGF, he recognized the ground principals of a
Bray Warwick - The Age of the Nazca-Lines
In the heat stones perform a patina of manganese oxide, traces of
iron and clay minerals. Below the stone advanced mushrooms, lichens
and cyanobacterias. Such stones in neighborhood to the lines could
be used to analyze the organic matter by C-14-Method. The idea is
those stones was turned during the line-drawing. In this way values
between 190 B.C. and 600 A.D. could be found. How many stones was
analyzed? Only nine pieces!
Professor Henri Stierlin - loom
Stierlin thinks the Nazca-Indians used the line-system as loom.
In the paracas-culture was made textiles witch was made of one
string. But the Indians hadn't wheels and looms, so they organized
hundreds of men who held the string. Their position was defined by
Dr. Zoltan Zelko - Map
The Hungarian mathematician Dr. Zoltan Zelko analyzed the Nazca-line-system
and compared with other ancient places in Peru. So he found out that
Nazca could be a map of a 100 x 800 kilometer including region
around the Titicaca-Lake.
Evan Hadingham - Hallucinogens
Evan Hadingham's proposal to solve the Nazca-Mystery is the use
of powerful plant hallucinogens like Psilocybine. In this way they
made shaman flights and saw the formations at the area. The reason
behind the lines are mountain-deities.
Prof. Helaine Siverman - Clan Signs
Helaine Siverman, the co-author of Anthony Aveni has additional
the idea that the figures are clan signs of different Indian clans
in the region of Nazca.
Prof. Dr. Aldon Mason - Signs for Gods
The main interest of Mason are the tombs and the deformation of
skulls of the Nazca-Culture. About the lines his comment is: Signs
for Gods in the Sky.
Albrecht Kottmann - Writing system
Albrecht Kottmann tried another approach to the Nazca-Mystery. He
divided the figures into different parts and analyzed them in a
geometrical way. So he divided a bird of 286 Meter length into 22
Parts. So he found that the head takes two parts, the neck five
parts, the body three parts and the other twelve parts for the beak.
The proportion between the beak and the rest is 6:5. Kottmann
believes the geometric signs are a picture writing system with giant
and small letters.
William H. Isbell - provision of work
He's the theory that the kings of Nazca ordered the drawing of
the nazca-line to control the population. When they did work they
couldn't make children at the same time. Why this? Isbell has the
idea the Nazca-Indians wasn't able to store field fruits, so in good
years the population were increasing to strong.