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Hypothesis of Construction of the Pyramids
of the Valley of Giza
by Carlos Eduardo Rodríguez Varona
HYPOTHESIS OF CONSTRUCTION OF THE PYRAMIDS
OF THE VALLEY OF GIZA
Author: Carlos E. Rodríguez Varona
Coauthor: Dámaso René Rodríguez Vives
English translation from María Jesús Postigo Ordóñez
Credit to my helper designer, the Ing. Fernando Bermejo, the
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All rights reserved under license No. 902003 of CENDA,
Havana, Cuba. January 9 of 2003
INTRODUCTION
The
following hypothesis tries to demonstrate the probable technology
(skill) used for the construction, specifically the elevation
(increase) and location to certain height, of the constructive
elements that compose the Egyptian pyramids of Gizeh's valley, in
specific Keops's pyramid. There is exposed a theory that uses two
types of ramps: those of static character, placed inside the body of
the pyramid, constructed with the body of this one; and smaller
others of dynamic character, located on the steps of the levels, of
structure flexible and changeable, easy to move and maneuver with
regard to the previous ones. Presenting both an angle of inclination
almost void in the slope.
Great Pyramid of Giza ramp construction
The pieces are placed in the shape of apparel to the style rope
of chairs (ashlar masonry), for what they are fastened  or grafts 
for the mass that is distributed above road surface and uniformly of
permanent form. In the bibliographical references there appear the
general foundations of the previous theories.
This hypothesis presents 4 features that constitute totally new
concepts with regard to the previous hypotheses:
 The small dimensions that they possess with regard to the
pyramids and the almost void angle of inclination that they
possess with regard to the horizontal plane, of 3.9 degrees.
 The space where this hypothesis develops it is constituted by
the steps and edges that possess the levels of the pyramid.
 The first type of ramps uses ramps, platforms and supports,
which are placed on the steps that shape the levels; quantity that
different according to the height and the type of element to
rising.
 The second type uses small sections of the edges of the levels
that they increase in length and depth inside the level as there
advances the construction of the ramp, according to the dimensions
that is needed have the same one.
The aim (lens) of this work consists of enunciating the probable
technology used to construct the pyramid by means of the use of
ramps to raise the pieces, without including the totality of the
constructive process of the same one; having present that this one
constitutes the fundamental aspect to carry out the construction:
without a technology to transport the pieces is not possible to do
anything.
THE FIRST TYPE OF RAMP
The construction of the model is realized by means of the
following procedure: taking dimensions come closer those of the
blocks that compose the pyramid, using geometric basic forms, a
brief physical reasoning  mathematically and common measures of
length in that epoch; there is chosen an angle adapted for the slope
that it makes possible to annul almost completely the action of the
gravity force; there being made a ramp that satisfies both
fundamental conditions:
 To transform the work to elevate the blocks in overcoming the
force of friction when dragging them and not in overcoming the
action of the gravity force on them.
 Possibility of transferring the blocks of comfortable, safe
and fast way, doing possible to make complex maneuvers with a
minimum of risk; even though this implies to cross greater
distances and to transfer a greater number of pieces than they
compose the inclines due to the necessity to increase to the
volume and the dimensions of the same one.
These two conditions, of obligatory fulfillment for both types of
inclines, constitute the theoretical premise that sustains this
hypothesis. For the specific case of the incline model made pattern
to determine the angle of the slope, the used measures were  using
the Biblical elbow like length:
 Present altitude: 0,45 meters (1 elbow),
 Final Height: 2,70 meters (6 elbows, including the present
altitude),
 Length of the incline: 33,75 meters (75 elbows),
 Wide (optional): 1,8 meters (4 elbows)  (the wide one varies
according to the height in him case of the second type of
inclines)
Click to enlarge this image
By means of the Theorem of the Triangle rectangle of Pythagoras,
the rake is determined that will have the slope, being obtained the
looked for result. Of random form: some specific procedure is not
used to calculate it. This procedure is reflected in the annexes.
The measures are chosen according to the necessity to elevate the
objects until certain height and position. It can be observed how to
design inclines of different lengths according to the previous thing
in the annexes. The dimensions and the rake that have the inclines
are greater of which really they could have been. This is valid also
for the second type of incline. This avoids discussing the questions
related to the real measures.
The first type presents/displays a complementary structural set
conformed by two horizontal platforms: first destined to locate the
blocks, like an intermediate place between the incline and the level
next to the same one to place them later on this level or to elevate
them by another incline parallelly located; and second like support
to maintain to the inclines and platforms that excel of the steps.
The almost null rake is characteristic fundamental: 3.9 slope
degrees with respect to the horizontal plane. This is equivalent to
work on surfaces almost totally horizontal. He himself obtains
itself randomly from selected dimensions.
Click to enlarge this image
An effective method is obtained to elevate objects
of any dimensions from a level to another one, using a system of
inclines able to vary its dimensions using more of a level like
support quickly to adjust to the existing necessities. This allows
combining several sets with the objective to use them of alternating
form to elevate the elements in complicated sections. This appears
exemplified in the figures.
Click to enlarge this image
Click to enlarge this image
This quality receives great validity in the case of the
construction of the cameras and inner rooms and the highest levels
of the pyramid. This first type would be fundamental in the
construction of the highest part  call PIRAMIDON  being used for
this several faces, to make the final finished one of the faces, and
to correct flaws or to finish off details during the constructive
process; in the transportation of jewels, symbols and other funeral
pieces; and in the sealing of the cameras and filled up of the way.
The filled up process of the steps in the highest part, where
supposedly they do not fit by the length so reduced that they have
the edges of the levels with respect to the length that have the
inclines, would be made of vertical form. That is: the spaces of the
subordinate echelons of command will fill up where is the incline,
so that the filled up sections correspond with the vertical plane of
the same one.
The use of this first type is essential at the time of conceiving
the pyramid due to the quality that characterizes it: it is a
structure easy to move, although it is considerable the number of
pieces that compose it. This makes possible to completely
disassemble it at any time of the construction to place it in
another place. It stops being a static object, making possible
designs of great complexity and given his ample possibilities to
vary his dimensions, adapts easily to the place, position and
maneuver that is required during the constructive process.
SECOND TYPE OF INCLINE
Consists of applying the previous type using a new variant: using
equal inclines but of greater dimensions, combined with the body of
the pyramid. These inclines would be the used ones on great scale to
make the work most of, employee to transport the greater amount of
blocks and constructive elements. The height is expressed by the
amount of levels that occupy, which will obey to the exigency to
advance more quickly in the work.
The length must adjust to conserve the angle of the slope of 3.9
degrees. The objective consists of overcoming the friction force and
not the gravity force. They constitute great and long constructed
inclines using sections taken from the edges of the levels, near the
steps of the pyramid, but located on the levels. They
present/display great lengths, near the 80 meters as one is in the
table of measures. And the present altitude is analogous to those of
the first type: an elbow of height and a superior surface conformed
by almost cubical blocks to a slope of inclination of 3,9 degrees.
The sections of the edges of the levels  or the corners,
according to the case literally are absorbed by the inclines as
these last ones are constructed, using like platform to support to
the incline the inferior levels. Reason why the pyramid becomes the
route to raise the pieces, with no need of steps nor platforms.
The blocks from certain sections of the edges of the levels are
taken to construct the base on which the incline will be
constructed. The taken amount diminishes horizontally in each level
as it is constructed, because the length of the incline diminishes
as it increases the height: The direction of the inclines will
depend on the taken initial trajectory.
The volume that occupies the inclines properly is the conformed
one by the part of the slope solely, that is, the volume
corresponding to the section limited between the slope and the
horizontal plane corresponds properly to the incline this. The rest
is the blocks of the levels. The wide one of the incline is
equivalent to the one of several blocks or steps, to allow
simultaneously transporting several elements or others of greater
proportions. The incline is constructed entering itself towards the
interior of the same one as it advances in the construction, by
means of a passage that interconnects them, maintaining the slope of
3.9 degrees. Resembling enormous lateral stairs with form of zigzag
within the pyramid. This allows to transfer anyone of the pieces
that compose the pyramid, without concerning the dimensions and/or
the mass that they have, until certain height.
If necessity exists to vary the direction sense because some
obstacle interposes: a passage, a camera, a failure or accident, a
corner, or another detail; it is determined if it is necessary to
change the sense, the dimensions, to continue on a face or others,
to replace them by those of the first type, etc., being offered a
quite dynamic process. But considering that once constructed is not
possible to return backwards because the blocks that compose the
body of the inclines cannot be cleared since it comprises of which
it has been constructed.
The second type of incline turns out to fuse those of the first
type repeated several times one next to the other in several levels;
taking advantage of like platforms of support for the constructive
elements and the previous inclines, the blocks that are successively
at the end of the mounted inclines and those that are below the
sections taken in the edges of the levels, respectively. It will be
used to construct the pyramid most of. When it is arrived at a
height where space does not exist to install them diminish its
dimensions. And when it is not possible to be continued reducing the
dimensions, they are replaced by those of the first type. This
includes in addition the possibility of combining, temporarily or
no, both types of inclines to surpass obstacles or to apply certain
constructive techniques.
It turns out advantageous to destine a section or fixed area of
the face to work with the inclines. This facilitates the design and
the planning of the work, because the used sections are easier to
control, reserving to the use of the remaining sections for possible
problems or variations of the design.
All this makes possible to make a scale model of the pyramid to
determine how it is going to be constructed, where they go placed
the inclines and how they will be used.
Planning wisely, a margin of errors is controlled that it
facilitates to surpass failures or necessary modifications, allowing
to execute agreed actions with the existing necessities and
possibilities.
And when arriving at the highest part of the pyramid  that
includes the PIRAMIDON  the first type of inclines is used and
finally the spaces used by the inclines of the second type fill up.
This last operation is carried out of descendent form use do the
first type of inclines is used of permanent form in the final stage.
This work does not try to expose a concrete example that shows
the exact procedure to construct the pyramid, where both specifies
the use of types of inclines, because both models of inclines
exposed here can be used using dissimilar technical variants in any
construction where inclines are used. The annexes are included in
the end related to this aim: to use them as guide to elaborate
certain and exact constructive procedure. The objective of this
hypothesis only consists of transmitting the technique; not the
procedure.
CONCLUSIONS
This technique previously presents/displays several advantages
and contributions with respect to the existing ones:
It has a precise and reasonable foundation with respect to the
previous existing hypotheses. It uses the inclines of efficient way,
using measured known and a technique concrete, without
presenting/displaying serious disadvantages as they are: to
constitute a risk for the personal security of the constructors, too
expensive being; not to establish of clear, simple and suitable form
to the conditions of those times, a trustworthy technical procedure
that guarantees the constructive process. As well, it allows to
dissuade to think about resorting to methods or procedures such as
those of supernatural or extraterrestrial character.
It conforms a safe and trustworthy model that it serves as to
tool fundamental in the design and construction of the pyramid,
making possible to plan of exact form the same one, to calculate the
time of construction, the technical amount of resources, personnel
and necessary elements.
This hypothesis implicitly carries the possibility that the
Pharaoh told on a safe technique that he allowed him to make the
decision to construct the pyramid.
This hypothesis, to validate itself from the historical point of
view, reframes the enigma of the construction of the pyramid
orienting the incognito of the investigative approach directed to
discover how it was calculated and designed the pyramid and how they
were elaborated, placed and constructed all to his pieces and
sections.
This work previously does not discard the possibility of the use
of other expressed techniques that could serve like complementary,
because singular maneuvers could be applied when making or to
transport specific elements as they could be enormous pieces. In
addition, it is directed to facilitate a study and understanding of
the architecture of old Egypt. It is, partly, a recognition to the
technical and cultural development reached about old Egyptians. It
is the impelling motor of this work to base to where it is possible,
a hypothesis of the character most reasonable and near possible the
specifications and technological and cultural that existed at that
time.
Of this form they are raised the inclines of this hypothesis;
which at first sight can be ineffective due to the small thing which
they seem with respect to the dimensions of the pyramid; but that
little by little, using them of systematic form, provides a quite
consistent and satisfactory solution with respect to the dilemma of
the used technique to elevate the pieces, being made possible to use
these inclines in the construction of a pyramid with the complexity
and the size that is desired, as it will be seen more ahead. With a
suitable planning and design, they are possible to be used
systematically of effective form placing them parallel to and on the
steps, of continuous form to conform a trajectory through one or
several of the faces  according to the design of the architect  by
where is possible to be transported the elements.
BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES
I. Aldred, Cyril, Aparición de los reyes  dioses.
Primer florecimiento del antiguo Egipto. / Piggott, Stuart, El
despertar de la civilización. Los enigmas de las antiguas culturas
revelados, Ed. Labour, S.A. Barcelona, España, 1963.
II. ENCARTA digital Encyclopaedia, 2000 year edition.
Microsoft Corporation.
III. Moreux, T. (Abate), La ciencia misteriosa de los
faraones, Ed. Sabian, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1956.
IV. Pijoán, José, El arte egipcio hasta la conquista
romana / Summa Artis: Historia general del arte, Ed. Espasa  Calpe,
S.A. Vol. III. Segunda edición, Madrid, Epaña, 1945.
V. Website: Touregypt:
http://www.touregypt.net/antiq .
VI. Website: United Sate Congress Library: mailto:
http://lcweb.loc.gov
VII. Website: Biblioteca Universidad Zaragoza:
http://wzar.unizar.es
VIII. Stadelmann, Rainer, Las pirámides, colosales
obras de ingeniería, Rev. "El correo de la UNESCO", número El Egipto
de los faraones, Ed. Maury  Imprimeur S.A., año XLI, Septiembre de
1988.
ANEXX
TABLE OF DATA FOR THE CALCULATION OF THE USE OF THE INCLINES
(WITHOUT CONSIDERING THE TYPE)
Calculation for height Nelbows, of the length of the incline,
with respect to the angle of the slope (3.9 degrees), considering
that the overall height does not contain to A1 (0.45 meters):
Formula: Length (d) = (Height)/(cot (angle))
Calculation to determine the height until which the incline can be
used:
Formula: Height (a) = ((230.4/2)  (length of rampa/2))/(146.6/(230.4/2))
Table of results:
Measures: Height (H): Length (D): Height (A):
1 elbow 0.45 meters 6.6008 meters 82.6697 meters
2 elbows 0.90 meters 13.2017 meters 80.2314 meters
3 elbows 1.35 meters 19.8025 meters 77.7931 meters
4 elbows 1.80 meters 26.4034 meters 75.3548 meters
5 elbows 2.25 meters 33.0042 meters 72.9165 meters
6 elbows 2.70 meters 39.6050 meters 70.4782 meters
7 elbows 3.15 meters 46.2059 meters 68.0399 meters
8 elbows 3.60 meters 52.8067 meters 65.6016 meters
9 elbows 4.05 meters 59.4075 meters 63.1633 meters
10 elbows 4.50 meters 66.0084 meters 60.7250 meters
11 elbows 4.95 meters 72.6092 meters 58.2867 meters
12 elbows 5.40 meters 79.2101 meters 55.8484 meters
Note: The wide one of the incline will depend on the necessities
to transport the objects, starting off of a wide minimum equivalent
to the double of which it has the object to transport.
CALCULATIONS OF THE PARAMETERS OF THE INCLINE PATTERN
Calculations of the incline
Parameters:
Present altitude of the incline: A1: 0.4500 meters
Final height of the incline: A2: 2.7000 meters
Length of the incline: B: 33.7500 meters
Wide of the incline: L: 1.8000 meters
Formula for the volume of the incline:
Vr= ((((A2A1) *B) /2) + (A1*B))*L
Vr= 95.6813 cubic meters
Formula to find the rake:
Angle (ƒ): (ƒ) = Arcot (B/(A2A1)) = 1/Arctan (B/(A2A1)); being:
cot (ƒ) = (B/(A2A1))
cot (ƒ) =1/tan (ƒ) = 15,0000
(ƒ) = 3,9054
About the Author
My name is Carlos Eduardo Rodríguez V. I live in
Camagüey city, Camagüey province, Cuba.
I am graduated of Education, in Physics and Electronic specialty. I
work as Computer systems analyzer in a Television broadcasting of my
natal city, Camagüey. I belong to the Group for study and diffusion
of the Egyptology “PAJUWER”, resident in Havana city, Cuba. I
possess a New Construction Hypothesis of the Pyramids of the Valley
of Gizeh, registered under License No. 902003 of CENDA (Centro
Nacional de Derecho de Autor  National Centre of Copyright) in
Havana, Cuba.
My work consists of the proposition of a new technique
(or technology) to use the ramps in a completely efficient and
reasonable way, accord with the time they were built.This hypothesis
presents 4 features that constitute completely new concepts
regarding the previous hypotheses. The article presented above is
the English translation of my work.
I have a webpages:
http://crvcrv21newhypothesisofgizeh.blogspot.com/ and a subject
related discussion forum:
http://newhypothesis.miweb.es/
POWER POINT PRESENTATION OF IMAGES OF RAMP CONSTRUCTION & GREAT
PYRAMID
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presentation due to their security settings
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http://www.cenit.cult.cu/sites/uneac/boletin/0005/index.htm#art04
CRVCRV21  Rv:200110
Carlos Eduardo Rodriguez V 2008 Circular Times  Great Pyramid
Construction Theory Ramp div. 2008
http://noticias.arq.com.mx/Detalles/9547.html (main portal
of the architecture and architects in Mexico)
Carlos Rodríguez V is presently seeking appropriate
assistance and support for his endeavors  If you are interested in
sponsoring Carlos please contact Carlos Rodríguez through the
following Email:
[email protected]
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